yurveda, Indian Medicine System, emerged from folk practices;

yurveda,TraditionalMetaphysicsin The Philosophy of AyurvedaMonica  Kuwar Rathorethe  text   and  philosophy   of          Actually,  the basic  philosophical conceptsof Indian  Medicine, remains the                                                    anatomical, physiological and medicinal importance,ancient yet living tradition. The Vedic available in Rgveda in theforms of seeds,are found in word Ayurvedahas been coinedby the conjunction ofdeveloped and appliedform as fruitin Cnrnkd Samhit0,two Sanskrit words, tyus meaninglife and ceda Susruta 8ainhit0, K0s”yapaSamhit0 and other Ayurvedic meaning knowledge.

According to thistranslation, texts of later period. Thus, Ayurveda adopts Ayurveda means ‘thescience of life.’ But the Vedic  philosophical  and metaphysical  orientations  of texts expand onthese definitions to offer a more dnrs’dunsaccording to suitability of its subjectmatter, complete understanding. CarakaSamhit0 describes it  principally   Nyaya,   Vais”esika,  Samkhya   and as:                     considerablyYoga.hitahitnmsukham duhkhnmayustasja hitahitam i manam caInccn yatroktamayurvedah sa ucysle 1 1 ‘”Thus Ayurveda is that whichdeals with good,bad, happy and unhappy life, its promoters and non promoters, measurements and nature.” Ayurveda is eternalwhich means that its principles were operational right from the beginning ofcreation whether we have realized them or not. Ayurveda mentors or sages just dealt with Ayurvedic principles like Newton did with gravitational force.

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Three major Ayurvedic texts are known as Brhad Trayi-: Caraka Samhité, 5usruta Samhit0, andfs0hga Hrdayam.As its nameshows, there aretwo main objectives of Ayurveda, i.e. to protecthealth of the healthy and toalleviate disorders in the diseased.’Ayurveda, the IndianMedicine System, emerged from folk practices; it developed withina well-defined philosophical framework.

Further, it did not developa philosophy in the course of time as drugs came intouse and cures were effected, but, on thecontrary, drugs were administered with aresulting cure on the basisof a philosophy that was crystallized at its earliest stage of development. It was theory that determined the practice in Ayurveda.Ayurveda did nothowever adopt any particular philosophical system as a mere intellectual exercise.Its alignment with the stylizedsystem of thoughtsuch as Nyaya, Vais’esika, Sfiiiikhya and Yoga was motivated by the practical considerations involved in man’s happiness and healthhere and now.The basicassumptions of Ayurvedaare the theory of the physical constitution of human body(theory of five elements or pdncu-mnhfihhufd) and the narration about the human naturewhile all bodyelements are balanced and whendisturbed according to three humors (tridosa) doctrine, i.e. vata, pitta and kapha.

After a deep consideration of Ayurveda’s philosophy, it is evident that the Nyaya-Vais”esika systems may be said to have contributed thebasic physics and chemistry of drugs while Samkhya-Yoga system provided biology andphysiology. Ayurveda achieved an effective integrationof these contributions. Ayurveda represents a level of systematization that was higher and more meaningful thanthese philosophical systems. The conceptualcoordinates of this systematization are similar to these philosophical systems, but theyare free from narrow constraints within which the systemsworked as mere intellectualdiscipline.

It also applied these coordinates in practice.Whatever philosophical terms or orientations were usedby Ayurveda systems, were basically generalterms. Moreover, the Ayurveda systemhas applied these terms or concepts in solvingthe riddles of biology and medicine. Ayurvedahas adopted the principles of philosophical schoolsaccording to the suitability of subject matter andutility in medical science. The philosophical principles have become moreapplied and massive in Ayurveda, although their metaphysical essence has beencautiously preserved in it.Light on Ayurveda Journal, Vol.

  VIII,Issue 2, Winter 2009       7Therefore, Ayurveda has itsown philosophy as anindependent philosophical system. Sdrrudurs’nnu 8aUgraha mentions sixteenphilosophical systems, viz. Carvaka, Bauddha, Arhat, Ramanuja,Piirnaprajna, Nakulis”a—Pas”upata, Daiva,Pratyayabhijna, Rases’vara, Auliikya, Aksapada, Jaimini, Pfinini, Samkhya,Pfitanjala and San’kara.

RasesvaraDnrs”ana is one of them which is a developed branch of Ayurveda. P.V.(manifested),  on  the other  hand,  refer to pdncn—/0fiueudriyd (five senseorgans), pahca—karmendriya (five motor organs), pahca—mah0bhu ta (five gross elements) and mnuus.’ Prakrti  Mahat (Intellect) Sharma  also  used the  word  dnrs’uun in  his own                                                                                  composition Ayurveda Dnrs’nudm in wider connotationcomprising metaphysical aspects, basic concepts and philosophy ofapproach to health and medicine. The important metaphysical concepts ofAyurveda philosophy are as follows:—> Evolution of Universeand Body> Five Element Theory (Paiica Mah0bhiita Theory)-      Three Humors Theory (Tridosa Theory)> Description ofCategories (Pad0rthas)Enumeration  of Categories (Pad0rthao )GenericConcomitance (Sfimfinyn) and Variant Factor (Vis”esa)Enumeration and Concept of Attributes (Gunns) Substance  (Drnryd) and its Classification•    CausalSubstance (K0rana  Drnryn)•    Substance as Effect(K0rya Drama)z Sentient   or   Organic  Substance  (CeiuuuDrdryd)s     Aufus’cefuun or Sth0vara (without external consciousness)+Bahirantas”cetnna or Jnngnmn (with explicitconsciousness)z Non—sentient   or   Inorganic  Substances Action(Enrmnu) Concept Inherence (Scmdrfiyn) TheoryEvolution Theory of Universe and BodyThe origin and development of this universehas been the centralpoint of the discussion of philosophy. 8us”ruta and other Ayurvedatexts like Bh0vaprak0s”aand Sariigadhara Sainhit0 accept that this universe is made up of25 elements.’ But Caraka adopts 24 elements and includes eight prdkrfis andsixteen rikfirns.

‘ Theeight prdkrfis are: avyakta (unmanifest), mahat (buddhi or intellect), ahamk0ra (ego) and pahcatanm0tr0  (fivesubtle elements).  Sixteen cikfirds 8       Light  onAyurveda Journal,  Vol. VIII, Issue 2, Winter2009Ahamkara (Ego)      Panca— Mahabhuta (Gross Elements)   $Manas (Mind) Fig 2. Evolution  Processaccording  toCarakaSus”ruta accepts these 24 elementsand purusa as the twenty—fifthelement.’ According to Caraka, avyakta isusedboth for prnkrfi as well as piirtisn.

So unmanifest self or purusa is alsopresent there as consciousnessbut Caraka does not enumerate it as a separate element or as a twenty—fifthelement.Moreover, Saiiikhya admits that from s0ttvika ahaink0rn theeleven organs, viz. muds (mind), puncn— Jhfinendriya (sense—organs) and pdhca—karmendriya(motor organs) proceedbut according to Caraka these organs proceed from five physical subtle elements. From prdkrfi issues mahat, thence ahaiilk0ra andfrom ahaink0ra, five subtle elements (tanm0tr0)’ andfrom these elements, the eleven organs and fivegross elements proceed. Therefore, according to Caraka, these organs are physical and the physicalbody is the subject matter of medicine.

‘ The five sense—organs are composed of these physical elements with the predominance of one in each. Thus, Samkhya’s organs are egotist and formless. Therefore, they cannot begiven treatment.’ Sus”ruta also mentions that theorgans are physical as they have predominance of pahca—mah0bhuta (five gross elements —prthivi-, Jala, frJns, rfiyu, 0k0sn )” and only a physicalentity can be the

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