Xiaoyu Wang01/17/2018BIOEN 215 AEIdentification of Current Problems in Cancer DetectionIntroduction In this assignment, I will discuss about the needs, problems, and solutions in cancer detection from three different research articles 2,3,4. From statistics, screening for high risk population at very early stage is necessary 1. Early detection of cancer is essential to improve the survival rate 1,2,3,4. Research Article #1 Computing System to Detect Early Phase Breast Cancer Breast cancer is becoming more and more common as a major cause of deaths in women 2,3,4. The need is to detect early stage cancer more effectively and accurately to reduce mortality 1,2,3,4. The current computer aided system relies on both early-phase and late-phase information of the tumor. However, Mammography, Ultrasonography, and MRI, could only provide early-phase information which is reduces the accuracy of the detection by current computer-aided detection systems. In this experiment, engineers developed a new computer aided system to that rely on early-phase information and use 3D models to stimulate late-phase information which increase the accuracy of early detection of breast cancer significantly.Research Article #2 Model Combines Microwaved Imaging and UltrasoundBreast cancer is a major cause of death among women 2,3,4. Early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer could increase the survival rate significantly. We need to design product that is more effective and efficient to detect and treat early stage breast cancer.The current methods all have limited ranges they could scan. X-rays could not image some particular regions such as the underarms region 3. Ultrasound is not able to detect the small breast tumor accurately. MRI is very expensive and its role in clinical use is still undetermined.In this research, engineers developed a system that is a combination of the use of the energy of the microwave and ultrasound. It use the relationship between absorption rate and acoustic pressure to give a three-dimensional image of the breast tissue. The system provide a wider range of region we could scan and it is also able to detect the tiny tumor which the traditional scanning tool could not.Research Article #3 System Using Microwave Irradiation Contrast to Image and Detect Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a common type of cancer and have a high mortality rate 2,3,4. Early detection of breast cancer is needed to reduce the mortality rate. The current methods for breast cancer detection have limitations for their reliabilities and accuracy 4. X-ray is not accurate enough which has a high false-positive rate and false-negative rate. Also, too much exposure to x-rays is bad for health and might cause problems. Ultrasound is not reliable when facing soft tissues such as breast. MRI is too expensive to use. In this experiment the engineers develop a model named microwaved thermoacoustic imaging (TAI), which could convert the energy of microwave irradiation into kinetic energy causing air vibration to produce acoustic wave. The characteristics that the edges of tumor consists more water and absorb more microwave irradiation allows TAI map out the absorption contrast and give the image of the area as a scanning tool. TAI is more accurate than the traditional scanning tools and easier to use.Conclusion In this assignment, I discussed about current problems in cancer detection from three different research articles 1,2,3,4.To determine whether the articles I choose are peer-reviewed or not, I go to the origins of each article and check their official website. Most of the time, they will stated whether the publications on the website are peer-reviewed or not either on their front page or the FAQ sections. In addition, a journal’s impact factor and number of times it was cited also indicated its reliability. To investigate current problems in cancer detection more extensively, I could go to American Cancer Society, World Health Organization, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for more informations It is appropriate to use sources listed above which are not peer-reviewed when we are trying to find most recent statistics or provide background informations. We could search those informations from interviews, medias, seminars, and other government websites. Although they are not peer-reviewed, they could also provide useful informations for our essay and research.I think the second research article I chose provide the best solution for its problems 3. They took advantages of the current methods we have for breast cancer detection and develop a new system to combine the advantages of both of the current methods. I think this is a clever way for engineers to think about their own design to solve the problems.