Write a sentence for each of these mechanisms describing the manner in which the DNA can be transferred from one cell to another.Horizontal gene transfer – the process of gene transfer between existing adult organisms through mobile genetic elements. Horizontal gene transfer is realized through various channels of genetic communication – the processes of conjugation, transduction, transformation. It processes in the composition of vectors – plasmids, transposons, bacteria-infecting viruses. Active gene transfer can occur in symbiotic and parasitic systems, where there is physical contact of cells.
Transduction, transfer by a bacteriophage into a cell to be infected fragments of the genetic material of a cell that originally contained a bacteriophage. Such a bacteriophage usually carries only a small fragment of host DNA from one cell (donor) to another (recipient).An important role also played by genes that animals borrow from viruses, transposons, retrotransposons, delta-retroviruses. Fragments of DNA from viruses and transposons are often “tamed” by higher organisms and begin to perform useful functions in the genome.
Choose a disease or an organism that has a well-documented mechanism of resistance (such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus – MRSA or tuberculosis) and see if you can identify the gene or genes that confer resistance and the method of DNA transfer thought to contribute to its spread. This may be from one organism to another or may simply be passed down from mother to daughter cell due to environmental pressure.Recently British biologists announced the detection of bacteria containing mcr-1 gene in various bacterial samples taken from humans and home animals living on islands.
This gene, which appears in microorganisms due to the recently discovered MCR-1 gene transfer mechanism, empowers them with the ability to resist colistin, the antibiotic commonly used as a “last resort”. Finally, discuss the danger that antibiotic resistance poses in today’s society, consider how man has contributed to this and suggest any strategies that you think may be able to halt it or prevent its expansionResistance to antibiotics is rapidly increasing to high levels around the world, influencing human ability to treat infectious diseases. Infections diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhea, foodborne diseases and many others are becoming harder and sometimes impossible to treat because of the decreased effectiveness of antibiotics.Most danger pose regions where for the treatment of humans or animals antibiotics can be purchased without a prescription. Similarly, in countries where there are no standard treatment recommendations, antibiotics are often prescribed by doctors and veterinarians.Measures to reduce the impact of sustainability and limit its spread can be taken at all levels of society:take antibiotics only as directed by a qualified doctor;never require antibiotics if they are not necessary;always follow the recommendations of a doctor when using antibiotics;