Wounds These are basically lipid signaling molecules

Wounds on skin of many animals lead to theformation of a fibrotic scar tissue which lacks hair follicles.

However, the woundedskin of rabbits and mice is capable of regenerating the hair follicles. Scar formation and tissue regenerationare opposite results of the wound healing process. Theprocess is known as wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis. A number of factorsassist in the hair growth process like hormones, growth factors, cytokines andadhesion molecules. One of the important factors for hair regeneration is the Prostaglandins(PGs) that are inflammatory mediators involved in the wound healing process andhair regeneration.

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These are basically lipid signaling molecules derived fromarachidonic acid that regulate broad function in both an autocrine andparacrine manner. Prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 is an enzyme importantfor the PG biosynthesis pathway, converting arachidonic acid to PG H2. Not all PGshave the same biological effects. PGD2 isresponsible for the contraction of muscles whereas PGE2 controls relaxation. Prostaglandin E2is a receptor which when coupled to adenylate cyclase generates cAMP thatactivates the signaling pathway.

Activation of the Prostaglandin E receptor 2(PTGER2) assists in the development and growth of hair follicles, the structureinvolved in the cycling of hair growth. PTGER2 cDNA has been cloned from anumber of vertebrate species and the gene related to PTGER2 has also beenmapped to chromosome. Comparison of the genes among different vertebratespecies like dogs, horses, mice and cattle shows that the key function of Prostaglandinwas present in them, and the structure was highly conserved through evolution.

StudyingProstaglandins is important because the advancements could lead to a betterusage of the enzymes. Scientists could know  When PCR was performed in cashmere goattissue, the Mrna expression showed great differences in eight tissues. The genefor PTGER2 was expressed in all the tested tissues in skin, kidney,spleen, and lung. PCR suggested that PTGER2 plays a vital role in highexpression tissues than in low expression tissues. Which means that PTGER2plays a vital role in the skin. Hair follicles inmice undergo morphogenesis after the formation of a large wound. Thestimulation of the Wnt/b-catenin pathway, necessary for hair regeneration, isdependent on the presence of the factor Prostaglandin E2.

In otherwords, the presence of this factor leads to a better stimulation for thepathway of hair regeneration. The increase in PG levels causes alopecia andsebaceous hyperplasia. I hypothesize that Prostaglandin E2 is animportant factor for hair regeneration after a wound as it stimulates the Wnt/b-cateninpathway, which in turn is known to control wound-induced hair follicleneogenesis. 


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