Q1. and located in the center of

Q1. Ancient Egypt and Ancient Maya civilization both designedmonumental buildings to cooperate with light, for example the Temple ofAbu-Simbel and the El Castillo. The Temple of Abu-Simbel located at Abu-Simbel, in Southern Egypt.It was built under Pharaoh Ramesses II reigned, around 1303-1213B.

C.E. It hastwo separated rock temples, the Great Temple and the Small Temple. The Great Temple was built to dedicate to the god Amur, RaHorakhty and Ptah It was also to glorify and deify Ramesses II ‘s greatness.

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The Small Temple was built to dedicate to the goddess Hatho and his wife, queenNefertarir. Both Great Temple and Small Temple both aligned to the east,they were constructed according to the position of the sun of specific day, 22ndFebruary and 22nd of October. These day were to celebrate RamessesII’s birthday and the coronation of the Pharaoh. On these days, sunlight will penetratethe temple to illuminates the statures of the goddess, Pharaoh and his queen onthe black wall. However, only Ptah god of creation remain darkness due to hisassociation with the underworld.Likewise, El Castillo also built to cooperate with light.

Itwas built between 800-900AD and located in the center of Chich’en Itza inMexico. It acts as a holy place for Mayan, it is used for holding sacredrituals such as blood sacrifice and ceremony by the Aztec priest.El Castillo has four sides, each side represents one phase ofthe annual solar cycle. Each side also contain 91 steps, one final step on thetop.

This added up to make 365 steps signify the total number of day in a year.It was built as Mayan’s calendar. During Spring and fall equinox, the sun illustrates on theterraces and casts diamond pattern shadow. This shadow represents as thesnake’s body, joining with snake head carved at the bottom of the stairway.This creates illusion of a living snake which symbolizes the god of Mayan’s religion,Kukulkan the feathered serpent snake, crawling down the pyramid.

The illusionalso represents Mayan’s believe of Kukulkan will descend from sky to energizethe Earth.Pyramid of the Sun also cooperates with light. It was locatedat Mexico state. It was constructed around 200CE. It acts as a calendar bysetting sunlight into two significant day, 29th April and 12nd Augustwhich is the same date as the beginning of Maya’s calendar.

Q2.There are two types of architecture for both Ancient Mesopotamia civilizationand Indian Buddhism to communicate with gods, they are called the Ziggurat andthe Stupa. They are difference in term of form and material, however they doshare similarities. First, Ziggurat and Stupa had different form.

Ziggurat highpyramidal stepping tower where layers of rectangular platforms piled up and thetemple was placed at the top of these platforms. People believe that by raisingthe height would prevent the lowland to be inundated. Whereas Stupa has ahemispherical structure. The shape of a Stupa represents the body of Buddha.Each layers of Stupa have symbolized the five elements of Buddhism, they areearth, water, fire, wind and space. Stupa has a dome shape layer called the anda, the anda isused to cover the Buddha’s remains. Whereas Ziggurat is a rectangular platform.

Every layer of the Ziggurat has a square platform base with inward slopingwalls, also flat wide top for supporting the shrine. People believes thisallows goddest to come to earth and bring prosperity to the community. Instead,Stupa has a sharp end which is known as the Jewels.  Buddhis Stupa alsohas a circular medhi, which is used to support the central dome and raising itup. It is used a platform to perform ritual circumambulation.

Whereas ritualevent will be hold on the top of temple of Ziggurat.Ziggurat and Stupa use different brick to construct theirbuilding. Ziggurat used mud bricks as main material. However, they don’t holdtogether well in bad weather. Therefore, outer layer of kiln fired mud bricksthat is used to provide a waterproof effect. Whereas Stupa used of sun burntstone bricks. These bricks were laid with butter clay mortar and the exteriorof Stupa is coated with plaster as protection.

Ziggurat and Stupa architecture also share similarities. BothZiggurat and Stupa are ‘pile up’ construction where one layer is built on topof another layers. Staring from the wide base of Ziggurat and Stupa, the areaof each heaped up layers is decreasing. Therefore, both Ziggurat and Stupa havea narrower top.

 Stupa and Zigguratboth has exterior stair toward upper levels. Ziggurat has staircase to the topas they believe the god would come down to earth through the stair. Stupa andZiggurat both are solid structures, there is no internal space, thereforepractitioner doesn’t allow to enter the stupa.

Q3. Parthenon in Athens And Temple of Apollo in Didyma are Greekarchitecture. Both temple are built under different style of Greek architectureFirst, Temple of Apollo in Didyma was the fourth largestGreek temple, it was built twice time bigger than Parthenon in Athens.Parthenon in Athens are built under Doric style, it has bothinterior and exterior columns to support the roof.

It is surrounded byone rowof columns, this is known as peripheral temple. Whereas Temple of Apollo inDidyma are built under Ionic style, it contains exterior columns only. Thisexterior has double rows of columns, this is known as a dipteral temple.Parthenon has a base consist of three steps, the top step iscalled the ‘stylobate’ and the lower two steps is called the ‘stereobate’.Whereas the Temple of Apollo has a base with six steps.Doric columns are used to support the roof in Parthenon. Itusually has 18-20 flutings. It was used for lower level of multistory building.

Doric columns have thicker, smoother and rounder shapes. It doesn’t necessaryto have a base. These Doric order capitals are much plainer, less decorativeand more austere. Whereas Temple of Apollo in Didyma used ionic columns. It hasmore flutings than Doric columns, around 25-40 flutings. Ionic columns have abase of stacked disks.

This ionic order are used in upper level. These columnsare more slender, lighter and more ornate than Doric columns. Ionic columns alsohave a spiral shell volute at the top which make it more decorative than Doriccolumns.However, Ionic style temple and Doric style temple sharesimilarities.

They used materials like mud brick and marble. The columns ofthese temples usually carved from limestone and is decorated with marble. Ionic style temple and Doric has similar roof. They both hasa slightly sloping roof supported by columns.

However Ionic roof is moredecorative than Doric Roof.To conclusion, most classical temples in Greek are built in Doricstyle. They contain only one exterior and interior columns, this calleddipteral temples. They has Doric columns with fewer flutings. These columns aswider columns and more austere. Most Temple in Asia Minor are built in Ionicstyle.

There is two rows of columns in the exterior to support the roof, thisis called dipteral temple. Their ionic columns has more flutings, it is more slender,ornate and decorative than Doric columns. 

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