With and easy to accesses since it

With the current advanced technology, it hardly surprising that the advanced technology and construction industry has attracted considerable attention especially those in the construction industry itself. There are some research regarding this issues. The use of software applications in the construction industry continues to increase each year (Ismail, Rashid, & Hilo, 2009), and the increased use of electronic document management systems instead of paper systems (Bjork,
2006) creates a simpler way to share project data electronically via the internet. Thus, it is more convenient and easy to accesses since it is being organised and store using advanced systems. According to Skibniewski and Zavadskas, 2013; Skibniewski, 2015 unlike traditional technologies used in construction, which tend to be mechanical in nature, modern technologies integrate mechanisation with digitisation resulting in hybrid systems which combine the best of both worlds, reducing reliance on scarce, costly and unreliable labour while at the same time producing significant improvements in productivity, sustainability and safety. So, what kind of issues that are related to the use of information and communication technology in the current industry.?
Understanding how an innovation can be directed successfully is crucial. The current general concept of the literature talks about the impact of integrated collaborative technologies on team collaboration (Georgios & Fred Sherratt, 2018) and there are few others that talk about how to explore and define the concept of the digital skin of the future smart construction site (Ruwini et al., 2018). Moreover, by exploring the role of customers and vendors in the diffusion of modern equipment technologies into the construction industry (Samad, Steve, Martin & Leonhard, 2017), it shows that the vendors play an important role in this process. Besides, from a vendor perspective, the successful adoption of new technology relies on understanding the adoption process customers follow when deciding to adopt a new technology (Ganguly et al., 2010; McCoy et al., 2010). Meanwhile, there are other literatures try to demonstrate the relationship between the characteristics and innovation orientations of construction firms (Kamal, Yusof, & Mohammad, 2016). Lastly, from the general concept point of view of Aghaegbuna & Winston, 2018, it shows that in order to explore the nature and occurrence of perceived challenges to the adoption of ICT in construction site management, highlighting the peculiarities and dynamics, and emergent patterns, in relation to the users.
It is debatable how many years away the “construction site of the future” might be, particularly because the construction industry has not typically been pioneering in embracing technology when compared to other industries (Bowden, 2006; Ruddock, 2006; Navon and Sacks, 2007; Hosseini et al., 2013; Edirisinghe, Blismas, Lingard and Wakefield, 2014) like oil and gas industry, agriculture industry and automotive industry. Many types of challenges keeping the construction practitioners like contractors, developers, engineers and quantity surveyors from using and involved with the modern technology during the construction period. Limitation of technology such as hardware or sensors and software or application contribute to this problems. For example, a smart bracelet used by Yietal (2016), it is for monitoring heart rate suffered a transient malfunction during site testing. Besides, the same thing happens to the accuracy of sensors (Chen et al., 2013) and GPS due to their dependency on external systems has been reported by many researchers as a limiting factor (Meža et al., 2014; Jiang et al., 2015). Therefore, in order to accept the technology in the process of construction, it is vital to understand what the technology users’ expectations are before a product, system or technology is being developed (Ruwini et al., 2018). Moreover, while the technologies are still developing, there are issues with the economy that is a part of the challenges. Researchers consider the cost of equipment to be a barrier to technology adoption in the industry (Wu et al., 2010; Goodrum et al., 2006). Khoury and Kamat (2009) also argued that the implementation cost is a major obstacle to take the technologies beyond laboratory experiments. In addition, while the construction industry faces the same barriers to technology adoption as any other industry, such as attitudes and people transformation for technology acceptance (Xu et al., 2014), this industry’s particular characteristics introduce unique challenges for implementing technology to its full potential. Lastly, construction projects will have to deal with diverse and competing practitioners from various disciplines, in which resulting in the social complexity and most of the time there are no long-term working relationships beyond the scope of a single project (Navon and Sacks, 2007)
In spite of all of the challenges, there are also driving factors that prod the industry to adopt and adapt to new technologies. This include the cost and time savings, productivity improvements (Kang et al., 2008; Shan et al., 2012), the need for improved visualisation (Brandon and Kocatürk, 2009), globalisation through virtual teams (Vorakulpipat et al., 2010), as well as quality enhancement, increased client satisfaction, competitive advantage, easier information exchange and various other value propositions for stakeholders (Eastman et al., 2011) throughout the construction process. Kamal, Yusof & Mohammad (2016) stated that small companies have greater flexibility to innovate and tend to focus on incremental innovations such as improving existing technologies or designs. Meanwhile, Comacchio & Bonesso, (2007); Laforet, (2013) say that large companies focus on radical innovations and high-technology inventions because they possess necessary resources to embark on research and development as well as the ability to handle more risks. However, based on the vendor point of view, the successful adoption of new technology relies on understanding the adoption process customers follow when deciding to adopt a new technology (Ganguly et al., 2010; McCoy et al., 2010). Other than that, the driving forces also include the process problems, technological opportunity and institutional requirements (Mitropoulos and Tatum, 2000). Lastly, the information technology also makes it easier and more cost-effective for project managers to manage the safety of their employees. In the past decades, information technology including Micro Soft Words made it easier and cost-effective to process the documents which helped promulgate
OSHA standards (Qi, 2011)
In the future, it is expected that the worker either skilled or unskilled and construction practitioners will be wearing a smart wearable. These include e-textiles, such as smart safety vests (Edirisinghe and Blismas,2015), smart hard hats (SmartCap,2017;DAQRI, 2017; Yeh et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2015; RFID Journal, 2011; Hudgens and McDermott,2009), smart glasses, a wearable kit that can be customised according to a specific industrial need (CIOB, 2017a) and even an upper-body exoskeleton for certain tasks to minimise exposure to muscle strain, injuries and musculoskeletal disorders. In term of the safety, it is expected that the safety management system will be using advanced technology to increase the safeness of the site due to the current poor safety record. Therefore, sensor technologies embedded in PPE will work together with sensors mounted on site (Dasilva and Shervey, 2012), or with RFID tags (RFID Journal, 2011) to detect workers’ entry to hazardous zones or their proximity to mobile plants. A major part of health and safety management is dedicated to plant and equipment on site which has the potential to cause severe accidents with severe consequences (Ruwini et al., 2018). Proximity analysis between multiple mobile plants (Pradhananga and Teizer, 2013) or between mobile plant and workers will be part of the digital skin. Next, plant and machinery operation has a potential to cause severe injury and accident. Prior to starting a work procedure, workers will be able to watch a video on the safe operating procedures of the plant by scanning the barcode or quick response code (Lingard et al., 2015) on their smartphone or smart glasses. Thus, any site safety training will be conducted using the same technology. Plant and machinery maintenance crews will receive automatic updates on the usage of the plant, and all manuals and documentation in the system will also be auto-updated (Ruwini et al., 2018). The appropriate personnel will be alerted to overloaded or malfunctioning plant based on the automated control system (RFID Journal, 2009, 2010). there will be automated controls for collision avoidance, as well as accident prevention through proactive risk identification and mitigation (Edirisinghe, Blismas, Lingard, and Wakefield,2014). In addition, site safety and access management will be automated (RFID Journal, 2013b) which mean site environment conditions such as temperature, humidity, ultraviolet light, and air pollution levels will be monitored and visualised on BIM (Riaz et al., 2014). This is important to the worker on site when there have an unacceptable or unsafe accident like fire.
In conclusion, the current construction industry is filled with practitioners who value hands-on technical skills. With the new vision of the construction industry, various research project regarding this matter and also many advanced technologies have emerged to catch up with today modern era. All of this approaches and tools will significantly benefit to the entire construction industry (Qi et al., 2011). By considering this technology, it can help to improve design, costing, delivery and hand over of the project will be smooth as well as to improve project performance. Thus, by considering workers’ opinion and perception, in term of the work satisfaction and motivation it can help to improve the construction productivity such as performance factors and production rate with the addition of the advanced technology.


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