With the advancement innanotechnology, we see the increased interest in the usage of core shellnanoparticles because of the advantages they possesses. These advantages cannotbe achieved if components of core shellnanoparticles are used individually. Core shelled magnetic nanoparticlesrepresents important branch of nanotechnology and acquire tremendous amount ofapplication in optical imaging1-3, catalysis4, magnetic resonance imaging2-9,sensors10, environmental remediation11, biological separation, cancertreatment12 and drug delivery13. The shell and core materials togetherunveil the combined optical14 and optomagnetic properties. Many core shellnanoparticles have been developed till now, among these ag nanoparticles are efficientlyanalysed as they hold unique optical, electrical, catalytic, antibacterialproperties16-17. They are clean, eco-friendly, less expensive and less toxicin nature14.
A range of approaches have been investigated for synthesis of agcore nanoparticles; the significant examples include chemical reduction14,laser ablation21, electron irradiation21, transmetalation14, microwaveprocessing21, photochemical methods21, polyol reduction18 andelectrochemical synthetic methods19-20. There are ample number of ag basednanoparticles which are synthesized successfully; [email protected]@Ag22, Fe70Co30Ag14,FePtAg18, [email protected] and ?-Fe2O3Ag14.Metal oxides are known to havevarious groups with different technological and fundamental importance. For theexisting core-shell nanostructures, the core are usually composed of iron oxide(Fe3O4 or Fe2O3) and iron metal24. Iron oxides exceptionally showssuperparamagnetism, biodegradability and biocompatibility28 that emerges fromfinite size and surface effects25-27. Despite having so many potentialabilities they are not an ideal metal. They have drawbacks such as limitedoptical properties, low electrical conductivity, large surface area to volumeratio and low surface charge at neutral pH, due to which biosensing is a difficulttask. When they are dispersed they show low stability and tend to form aggregatesin solvents29.
These downsides are resolved using silver coating. Silvernanostructures possesses unique surface plasmon30, which helps not only tomodify the outer covering of the shell but also to improve the stability of thenanoparticles31.Silver nanoparticles serve as an electrochemicalbiosensor, probe and as a substrate to detect different components such as H2O232,melamine22. These nanomaterials can be extracted easily using an externalmagnet. These are focussed here for their catalytic reduction property14. Thereare various approaches for synthesis of ag nanoparticles, they include chemicalreduction22,35, impregnation36, deposition14, solvothermal reduction33,evaporation condensation, photo-reduction34 and surface functionalization. Solvothermalsynthesis is a process in which the reaction occurs in an autoclave whichallows solvents such as ethyl glycol to be heated to temperatures more than itsnormal boiling point under high pressure.
The temperature acts as a media forinteraction of precursors. Depending upon saturation level of solvents, thisprocess produces many geometrically different shapes and sizes of nanoparticles37-39.This technique helps to prepare high quality metal oxide nanocrystals. The noveltyof the present route is that it can be used to produce metastable and stable statealong with silver metal, which is not possible in other synthetic approaches37.The wastes from textile, photographic and printingindustries are risky to humans and other living species40.
They causesserious damage to water bodies and surrounding environment. There are around 29-32Organic dyes which are used commonly in industries. A notable fraction of dyeare washed off as effluent from various industries. Among the varioustechniques, the degradation of these dyes by sunlight is popular process butthe process is slow in the absence of catalytic assistance41-44. Thereforethe process is appointed with efficient catalyst. Rhodamine B (Rh B) is a harmfulindustrial pollutant dye.
They are commonly used in textile industries45.Their removal is utmost important task as they are toxic and carcinogenic innature and are nonbiodegradable in wastewater. They are harmful even whenconcentration is low44. Rh B are degraded by heterogeneous photolytic methodbut the process is very slow. To fasten the degradation best agents such assilver core – shelled iron nanoparticles are used.
This process is based upongeneration of hole pair and electrons which are later used for redox reactions46.Silver shelled ferrous nanoparticle is one of the best photocatalyst , as theypossesses the characteristics of absorbing visible range light and have a bandgap of 1.1- 2.2eV45. Other than that, ferrites can be easily separated usingexternal magnets and can be reused.
They help in accelerating thephotocatalytic reaction and degrade RhB into simpler molecule which is harmlessto flora, fauna and human beings. In this paper the ag nanoparticles have beenevaluated for the RhB degradation in presence of photons. The degradationmechanism using the synthesized catalyst are discussed here along with otherproperties of the synthesized catalyst.