With on how they have coped with the

With the movie industry constantly growing and changingto fit in with the trends of the times, Posters for these films need to growalong side them in ordr to stay relevant. This has caused film posters to growalong side the changing field and the big factor of creating these movieposters is the genre they are depicting. Thus, Within this academic writing, ithopes to research into and investigate how poster design in influenced by thegenre its promoting and how it dictates the overall design layout. This meanslooking into what the role of a poster is both historically and in modern timesto see how it has changed to keep with up with trends while also looking intowhat design rends have been constant within these posters.

Along side this, itwill touch upon movie marketing and how film posters play into the motionpictures distribution, were genre came from and what it is and examples ofgenre driven posters. To help with the research, it ill cover key artists anddesigners over the course of film poster design to help gain an understandingof what was required from them at the time and there views on the changingworld of their craft. Artists such as Saul Bass, Bill Gold, Rynold Brown,Renato Casaro plus a few more will shed light on how they have coped with thechanging of times and how they go about their design processIn retaliation to the findings of this essay, thepractical element will hope to be informed by the research gathered to create afew pieces based upon the effects of genre on the design process.         Marketing in the movieindustry There are a few things unique about marketing within thefilm industry. Timing is incredibly important to bring people to the cinema,the industry must build up as much hype for a film in the short amount of timeleading up to and around its launch as possible. Another unique factor is that movies, by their verynature, are content gold mines – a huge privilege when it comes to crafting apowerful content marketing strategy for an upcoming film or TV show launch.Seth Godin, one of the biggest names inthe world of marketing, summed it up when he said: “by definition, remarkablethings get remarked upon”.

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  Alongside ofusing  the likes of posters and adcampaigns, movies are using viral marketing ‘I am a strongbeliever that word of mouth is the most powerful form of marketing. If you wantto leverage viral marketing of any sorts, you must begin by doing somethingworth talking about.’ (Godin, 2017)For a movie to get its name known it must promote itselfand reach as many people as possible to encourage them to go see it at thecinema.

  Thisusually occurs alongside the process of the films distribution and anypromotional material that goes with it. The way a film is promoted can have agargantuan effect on its success, along with film junkets, advertisingcampaigns, franchising, press releases, merchandising, and interviews with thedirectors of the movie. These factors are an important part of any launch of anew film due to the large financial risk of its success and ensuring the publicbuy tickets to come and see it. Movie studios have invested their time andresources into expensive marketing campaigns to maximize revenue early in thefilm’s release. With this being the norm in the industry, the marketing budgetsof movies both big and small tend to equal to around half of the productionbudget for the filmMovie marketing is a constantly changingfield. It wasn’t too long ago that having a website for a movie was a fairlyinnovative practice. Just 10 years ago a movie’s primary social mediapresence was using the likes of MySpace pages, however, the film industry, likemost others in the creative field, are constantly changing with the times tokeep up with the pace of innovations and current trends.

This can be seenwithin current movie marketing of the latest Marvel film, Thor: Ragnarok, whichhas taken a different direction than its predecessors within the Marvelfranchise. There are a few ways in which Marvel are tapping into what is uniqueabout the film and what has worked within the previous films in the Thorfranchise. The problem the Thor franchise had was the last film, Thor: The DarkWorld, had taken a darker direction than the other films made by MarvelStudios.  This dark tone was translatedinto the posters advertising the film. By contrast, Thor: Ragnarok’s campaignhas been filled with psychedelic colour throughout its marketing life cycle.The posters by Mondo and created by artist Matt Taylor feature bright oranges,greens and blues and the title treatment looks like it was pulled right out ofthe 80’s with its design enhancing the tone-shift the movie was going for. Evenbefore the actual marketing started the studio gave the audience a sense oftone-shift by releasing a short video called Team Thor depicting the God ofThunder living with a roommate in a fun style while other events occur in theMarvel cinematic universe.

 The posters used in the marketing campaignare a colourful effort that stand out against darker tone films of the samegenre. Each poster has an animated motion version that can be seen used on thelikes of bus stops and within cinemas to name a few. The poster depicting Thorshows him with short-cropped hair with helmet in hand as he stands in themiddle of an arena of onlookers, almost gladiatorial. The swirling debris andbright light at the top are meant to show this is taking place somewhere otherthan Earth, which is important.  Aslightly animated motion version of thatposter­­­ was released later on.A whole series of character posters put eachmember of the ensemble on their own, set against a bright and colourfulbackground that is coming at them like a wave. Everyone from Thor to Odin,Grandmaster to Valkyrie and to Hela get their own posters, selling this as areal team movie.

INSERT IMAGES     Genre. What is it? Whycategorise Genre, which comes from the French word type, is a formof communication with socially agreed upon conventions that have developed overa peroins of time. This form of categorizing can be seen across the likes ofLitriture, film, tv and music which is important for both media producers andconsumers. These film genres are formed by certain narrative or aestheticalelement’s that have become common place in certain film categories. Forinstance, if the film follows the star running from the government then itfalls within the confines of a thriller while a movie based on a goof ball copin the force is most likely a comedy. By the end of the silent era, many of themain genres were established such as the westerns, the horror films, comedies,and action-adventure films . Musicals were inaugurated with the era of theTalkies, and the genre of science-fiction films wasn’t in the mainstream untilthe 1950s. One problem with genre films is that they can become stale,cliche-ridden, and over-imitated.

A traditional genre that has beenreinterpreted, challenged, or subjected to scrutiny may be termed revisionist.Tom Ryall, a notable name in the field ofgenre theory, Has distinguished three levels of that which people shouldunderstand genre within cinema. There is the generic system which is therelationship of individual genres and to movie production in general, thenthere’s the individual genres which are defining each of the genres and theircommon elements, and finally there is individual films  Toms gave his views on this matter andstated:  ‘Genre provides a framework of strturingrules in the shape of patterns, forms, styles and structures, which acts as aform of supervision over the work of production and the work of reading theaudience’ (Ryall,1978) Tom Ryall contends that some genres such as horror,comedy or thrillers may be better conceptualised considering their effects onthe audience for example how they make the audience feel. Tom Ryall alsoprovides a list of the categories that he considers to be proper genres(westerns, gangster films, musicals, horror films, thrillers, comedies,melodramas and women’s films ) Posters – What role dothey play? Historicaly and now? The role of a film poster is to grab the attention andinterest of a huge audience and encourage them to go and watch it.

  An eye-grabbing design can have a phenomenaleffect on people and the stars of the film create attention with their namesusually appearing in larger print. Movie studios often create and printnumerous posters that will vary in their size and content to cater to variousinternational and domestic audiences. These posters will normally consist of animage based upon the movie its advertising with large lettering on top to givethe film’s title and occasionally a line from the movie or a slogan, alongsidethis they will contain the big names of the film. Film posters have been around and used since the earliestpublic exhibitions of movies. They began as placards used on the outside ofpicture houses that list the programs of films to be shown inside the theatre. Film posters have always been and will always bedesigned with the commercial intent of various audiences to buy a ticket.

It isgenerally thought that the first movie poster was created in 1890 by Frenchpainter and lithographer Jules Cheret for a short film called “ProjectionsArtistiques”.  Most of the early film posters prior to 1910 were simplesigns with block text announcing the title, producer, and director. Motion pictures popularity drastically increasedthroughout the U.S. and Europe. As a result, they soon required advertising toalert people when and where they would be shown. Films were shown at amusementparks, fairs, and music halls, and eventually in specially establishedmakeshift theatres called nickelodeons.

By the early 1900’s movie posters went from beingtypography driven to featuring illustrations of overlaid images form thepicture or an interpretation of a film scene which was represented in a widevariety of artistic styles. As the movieindustry grew, studios began to realize the value of creating colourfulartwork that depicted scenes from their movies to promote the films and bringin more viewers. These posters were printed on inexpensive paper and not meantto be collected or preserved. Originally, movie posters that were madeand produced this way were to be used exclusively by the theatre showing themotion picture and were required to be returned to the distributer once thefilm had finished showing and left the picture house in order for the nexttheatre to have them put up.From the 1920’s to the 1940’s, moviestudios were keen to develop their own artistic styles for their movie postersand hired well-known artists and illustrators such as John Held Jr, AlHirschfeld, Ted Ireland, Hap Hadley, Louis Fancher, and Armando Seguso. MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer studios inc.) was known for having highly polishedposters that used pastel colour schemes on white backgrounds for movies likeBen Hur, and Casanova. On the other hand, 20th Century Fox used rich andvibrant colours in their posters to promote their movies which at the timewhere mainly musicals.

 With this increase of public preference for colourphotographic quality prompted Columbia Pict­­ures to pioneer the “fake colour”process which colourized black and white still photos with the likes ofMetropolis and King Kong. It was not long before every studio adopted thisprocess to keep up with the trends.Very few film posters from this erasurvived the years of the Great Depression and World War Two where owners oftheatres would often receive credit for returning the poster due to their beingrestrictions on the use of paper during the war which kept movie posters out ofcirculation for this time. It is estimated that less than 20 copies ofmost film posters that were produced between 1930 and1945 exist today makingthem extremely collectible. Today, collecting film posters is a popular hobbyand studios typically print extra posters for the collector’s market.

  Oldand rare posters are extremely valuable, and many are auctioned off forhundreds of thousands of dollars. The current record-holder is the “international” version of theMetropolis poster, the same Heinz Schulz-Neudamm design as number 3 minus theGerman writing. The clean lines and delicate shading make this a wonder tobehold. It sold for $690,000 in 2005 and the rumoured purchaser was LeonardoDiCaprio Insert image hereUp until the mid-1980’s, the NSS(National Screen Service) printed and distributed almost all movie posters andrelated advertising material for most of the big name film studios.

Theevolution of multi-screen cinemas meant that studios could cut back ondistribution and the need for production, thus the distribution by the NSSwas eliminated.  During this transition period, many poster exchangesstill had large inventories of products and some evolved into the business ofre-selling the posters to collectorsDesigners galore are still fanatical about the poster forthe 1958 film Vertigo.  Saul Bass, anAmerican graphic designer and Academy Award winning filmmaker enabled thetransformation of film advertising into an art form.  Usually, film posters showed key scenes ofthe film with its characters, however Bass made more simple posters withsymbolic elements.

  For example, inVertigo, figures where shown in a spiral, evoking feelings of anxiety anddisorientation which were both key points of the film. When asked about hisview of poster design for film he said’My initial thoughtsabout what a title can do was to set mood and the prime underlying core of thefilm’s story, to express the story in some metaphorical way. I saw the title asa way of conditioning the audience, so that when the film began, viewers wouldalready have an emotional resonance with it’ (Bass, 1996)As the costs of modern printing rises, many studios areopting to promote their films online with the like of social media and throughtelevision. With this change many cinemas are going digital and replacingtheir back-lit poster frames with video screens that can display film postersalongside its motion graphics counterparts with little effort. Whether thismeans that studios will reduce the amount of money spent on that uniquelycreated, iconic film poster, in favour of less expensive alternatives is yet tobe seen.  Artistic creativity in promotional materials, whatever themedium, will continue to be an important aspect of those films that strive fororiginality and artistic quality.

Bill gold is a former graphicdesigner who is best known for working on thousands of filmposter designs or over 6 decades from the 1970’s onwards states that heapproaches every movie poster he would work on as a chance to advance thestorytelling of the film. He told the Hollywood reporter that when he visitshis local cinema he practically shudders as he passes the rows of posters forthe new movies. Having spent much of his life designing and defining the art ofmovie posters, he feels a sense of disappointment. “I can’t believe they aredoing so little,” Gold says. “I can’t believe they’re not marketing the movie.”(Gold, 2004)    Posters + Genre –examples  HorrorHorror films are a genre of films that seek to frightenits viewers and bring out negative emotions and phobias that people may sufferfrom.

The first horror movies were made in the end of the 19th century. Themain reason for people to watch horror films is probably the thrill it gives.When the audience gest frightened, adrenaline is released. This can be quite arush. And it is entertaining.

Horror films are divided into subgenresconsisting of mockumentaries movies where fictional events and characters aredisplayed in the style of a documentary such as rec. and the blair witchproject. Gory films that concentrate on the amount of violence and gore in thefilm than the plot itself), post apocalyptic films where the world hassuccumbed to a virus or disaster of some sort and has a plot revolving aroundpeople trying to survive in the remnants of the world) among others.Movie posters are an art, and horror movies have had their fair share ofartistic triumphs. Some horror posters, in fact, are more entertaining than theactual films.Movie poster designers don’t seem worriedabout their work feeling derivative and often they are actually counting onyour sense of déjà vu to promote their new movie. So it’s not surprising thatsome movie posters end up looking similar to one another.

Even with thatin mind, most people are aware of just how little diversity there is withinmovies of the same genre.  The most commonly used trope within posterswithin the horror genre is a single large face. Posters using this trope aretypically aiming to evoke fear or unease in the viewer. These designs that usethese large faces that seem to be looking directly at the viewer draw theprospective audience in by placing them in direct interaction with theprotagonist, whether it’s the films victims or its villain.This trope of using a large face of itscharacter is notably underused in the horror comedies sub genre, perhaps due tothe lack of comic potential, with the exception of horror comedies such asScream (1996) and Braindead (1992), directed by Peter Jackson.In the vast majority of cases, victims andvillains are far more likely to be used within these tropes than heroes. Thisis a direct departure from most films, which highlight the hero.

Eye colour isoften used to provide a clue as to whether the owner of the face is a villainor victim, with black or red eyes often indicating the face’s malevolentintent, blue indicating a victim and green the supernatural.Take, for example Stanley Kubrick’s movie,The Shining (1980) INSER IMAGE.When released, this movie was depicted in its poster by having the title of thefilm is in the center of the poster in order to catch the eye of the audience.The colors, yellow and black, are bold. There is a face unrelated to the filminside the title, which is a little confusing at first glane but becomes moreand more intriguing as people look at it. As yellow connotes danger because ofwarning signs used in everyday life that are typically yellow, the genre of thefilm is made clear to the audience. The comment, “A Masterpiece Of ModernHorror”, implies that it has got positive reviews from the critics whichinturns gets more and more people on board to go watch it and to cause a buzzamongst conversations.

When Saul Bass, a poster designer who wasvery close with Stanley Kubrick made drafts and concepts for The Shining(1980), Kubrick would personally take a look at the drafts and concepts andrule out ideas he wasn’t too fond of. He even made notes and sent them back toBass. (Marshall, 2014) This example shows that even the director of the filmcontributed to the making of the poster for his film. I just cannot see thisscenario in modern time. We can only assume the director of The Avengers (2012)has a slightest clue of how the poster is going to look like and probably hasnot got the time to get involved in the marketing.since advertising has become such animportant element of the whole marketing process in the film-industry, thebudget doesn’t stretch out to the poster department anymore. In the 1920’s,films presumably got attention by word of mouth, adverts in daily newspapersand the posters. One must also keep in mind that in those days competition wasmeaningless compared to the present day.

It seems to me that today horrormovies with badly written scripts and B-actors seem to be released a lot moreoften than they should. The producers are probably wiping the sweat of theirforeheads while looking at the costs. When it comes to posters, the easiest wayto get something “satisfying” seems to be contacting a mediocredesign agency and have someone put together something in a day or so. This waythe production companies save time and money.In the book The Principles of Psychology(1890), authors William James and Henry Holt talk about how the human eye andmind can detect different kinds of threats. These threats include insects andanimals that might be hostile, venomous or unpleasant in general. What makesthe theory about threat detection interesting is the fact that theserevelations have been used while branding and marketing horror movies.

If youtype in “horror movie posters” in google image search, you will seethat the majority of designs include a portrait of a face on the poster. Someof the posters put more weight on the visibility of the eyes giving off a’happy valley’ vibe to the audience looking at the poster.’People are born with automatic visualdetection mechanisms for evolutionarily threatening stimuli, such as snakes.These threatening stimuli are detected more quickly than nonthreatening stimuliand are thought to have evolutionary origins; efficiently detecting threats nodoubt provided a selective advantage for our human ancestors’ (James, 1890)( /  Need to go into this  / )The Exorcist (1973) has been classed as one of thegreatest horror films of all time.

  Thisvery dark poster with a single image of Father Merrin arriving at the MacNeilhouse creates the scare factor that every horror fan craves when watching a newfilm. ComedyComedy movies have been one of the longest running moviegenres alongside the likes of musicals. With this, the has been many trendsused within the poster design over the years. Anobvious trend used in the very early 1900’s were borders. From oddly shapedyellow borders in ‘Hearts and Planets’ to green triangle patterned borders usedin ‘His Picture in the Papers’. It was clear a lot of effort went into theseearly movie posters.The posters of the 1920’s we see a bit ofeverything, from minimalisticism in ‘Woman-Proof’ and ‘The Cohens and theKellys’, monochromatic images in ‘Along Came Ruth’, to basic comic drawings in’So This Is College’.

Although typography strokes were usedprior to the 1930’s, they were taken to the next level in this decade. Strokeswere used to make text appear three-dimensional in movie posters such as ‘Checkand Double Check’ and ‘The Devil is a Sissy’.The 1940’s seems to be the year whencomedy movie posters actually had a fun and energetic feel to them. Oversizedheads were used in the poster ‘A Night in Casablanca’ and there are smiles allround.Experimental compositions started tocome into play in the 50’s.

Prior to the 50’s, most posters were made up fromindividual images and some typography, whereas in the 50’s posters are composedusing several different images – a huge step in the movie poster world, givingit’s viewers more of a feel for the movie.As colour was becoming easier toprocess, more bright and vivid color schemes were being used in movie postersof the 60’s. Bright blues, pinks and oranges were used in ‘Once More, WithFeeling!’ as well as what looks like real developed photographs instead ofillustrated paintings.The 70’s saw hand-drawn sketches beingmerged with photographic portraits in Walt Disneys ‘Boatniks’, early use ofgrid-based design in ‘Trafic’, and simple two-color color schemes such as thatused in the ‘Outrageous!’ movie poster.Minimalism became a big trend in movieposter design in the 80’s that posters such as ‘They All Laughed’, ‘FastTimes’, ‘Private School’ and ‘Bad Medicine’ all followed. Grid-based designcontinued to grow, with more and more elements in the posters being aligned toone another to create an easy composition for the eyes to scan.Minimalism was still a hugefactor of movie poster design, as well as grid-design.

However, the posters dolook much more adventurous, using different techniques to attract the viewersattention. In 1995 ‘Toy Story’ was released, along with it came several superbanimated film posters using handfuls of technology. ‘American Pie’ broke therule of the grid, purposely tilting the grid sideways to create a unique lookNow days you can tell thecomedy film posters as they have become more of the same with each posterlooking similar to on another. This could be that most comedies are cheap toproduce and distribute and as an effect means that having posters that people arealready familiar with will make sure they know what their getting into.

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