With the continuouslyevolving world, the human lifestyle is changing frequently with people getting busierday by day. According to a survey done byJulie Guthman, Professor of community studies at University of California,people are too busy and stressed out that they don’t even bother to cook theirown meals. Grabbing something quick to eat from fast food restaurants hasbecome the most convenient way and that saves time. A daily mail article states that as at 2015the number of people who skip breakfast in the UK has doubled over three years.
However, complicated health problems arise as a result ofthis habit. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee of US collectedresearch on skipping breakfast which suggested that breakfast skippers may bemore likely to gain weight. As a result, people have shown interest within thepast few years in leading a healthy lifestyle as observed in the force fieldanalysis. (Refer Appendix 02)Withthe world population estimated to reach 9.8 billion by 2050 (GSA 2015), future food production systems will need to adapt andexpand accordingly. Especially since some experts believe production rates needto increase by 50 percent before 2050 to maintain current levels. Thus it isclear that sustainability has become a necessity. With the continuous evolution of technology,3D food printing has surfaced solving many of these basic problems faced bypeople.
3D food printing isan emerging and a developing technology with abundant research going on. It isa mechanism which involves depositing of layers of material in a process knownas additive manufacturing.3D food printers are also an “internetof things” appliance – which means that it can be connected to theinternet, and recipes and designs can be uploaded from anywhere. Food printerprovides a platform for consumer experimentation with various forms of food andflavors (Yang et al, 2015).China andUK are the current leading manufacturers of food printers.
The latestgeneration of 3D food printers is much more complicated, combiningnozzles, powdery material, lasers, and robotic arms to make sugar sculptures,patterned chocolate, and latticed pastry.Manyrestaurants are already picking up this concept. Paco Pérez, the executive chefat two-Michelin-starred restaurant Miramar in Spain is already experimentingand putting 3D food into practice and finds it very effective and amazing toachieve greater levels of perfection, unattainable in the case of using humanskills.Benefits of 3D foodprinting3D food printing allows theuser to make individualized meals with precise measurement of nutrition,calories, flavors and designs with minimal effort, enhancing convenience bysaving time, effort, space and many other resources. Many experts believe thatthe global food shortage crisis can be effectively addressed through 3D foodprinting. Nursinghomes in Europe are offering 3Dprinted food with jelly-like texture for residents with chewing andswallowing difficulties (The conversation, 2016).
In the context ofrestaurants, a large part of their costs are represented by raw material. Withthe inventory being more perishable a lot of attention needs to be given aswell as costs need to be incurred with regard to inventory management. 3DFood Printing offers the following benefits revolutionizing the restaurantindustry, making a huge impact on it.
(Refer Appendix 03)· Cheaper and easier management of inventory as the food willbe prepared based on demand. · Reduction of raw material costs.· Minimize wastage by using only the required amount of raw materialsto make food in the exact proportion desired by the customer.
· Enhanced creativity as it allows printing of variousdesigns such as sculptures. · Ability to make use of the upcoming trends of healthyeating as 3D food printing allows to adjust the nutrients, portion size andcalorie content according to the customer desires. ·New potentialproduct lines such as food cartridges made by special chefs and sharing ofdigital recipes.·Reduced workload resulting to enhanced productivity in thekitchen.How 3D food printing enhances sustainability-· 3D printed meat, asbeing trialed by professors at the Maastricht University, Netherlands, stand toreduce greenhouse gas emissions by 96%, while utilizing just 1% of the land,45% of the energy and just 4% of the water as compared to conventional beefproduction.· Lesser transport costssince most of the food can be 3D printed locally.As analyzed in Appendix 02, there are very lesssignificant resistors for 3D food printing, the main obstacle being theprinting process being time consuming and the ingredients having to beconverted into a paste before the printer manipulates them.
Cultural beliefsabout what kinds of matter are considered tasty and appropriate to eat werecentral in participants responses in the survey conducted regarding 3D printedfood. (The conversation, 2016)2.2 Changes in thesupply chain.Ingeneral, the supply chain of the restaurant industry tend to be extensive andcomplex. The reasons being,Ø Theraw materials being perishable requiring effective management for proper use.Ø Theneed to obtain safe and quality ingredients at an affordable price.
Ø Largenumber of direct suppliers that deliver the raw material to the restaurants.Ø Largenumber of indirect suppliers (companies or farmers that grow or process theingredients that are eventually delivered to the direct suppliers.)As a result, effective supply chain management has becomecostly for the restaurants.
Supply chain management has traditionally beenviewed as a process where raw materials are converted into finished goods(Srivastava 2007). However, end to end visibility of the supply chain andtransparency are specifically considered as important factors for restaurants’ supplychain. Traceability is crucial in helping restaurants,farmers and food processors meet FSMA requirements, mitigate recalls and food-bornillness outbreaks, meet consumer demand and support clean eating trends. (ScottSaunders, senior vice president, supply chain integration, HAVI.) 22% of manufacturerspredict 3D Printing will have a disruptive effect on supply chains