While is vast, only relevant studies are

Whilethe literature on urban facilities and services is vast, only relevant studiesare summarised here. Literature about the role of infrastructure and itsessence in the development of an economy was presented by development economistlike Nurkse Rostow (1954), Hirschman,A.O. (1958), Haffman (1958), Lewis (1954), who have stated their ideasabout the role of infrastructure.

In their view, it is a precondition foreconomic development in general. The process of urbanization and increasingpopulation has triggered various infrastructure technologies and increased itsdemand. It is generally observed that development occur unequally owing togeographical distribution of infrastructure. Hence, geographic incidence andtransmission of economic development form a crucial point to be discussed inthe process of infrastructure development.Therole and outlook on India’s infrastructure development was stressed by Gowda and Mamatha (1997). They highlightedthat an improved infrastructure brings a positive relationship between GDP andinfrastructure stock per capita. In the investigation of the relationshipbetween the gross domestic product (GDP) and stock of infrastructural servicesin India, Sahoo (2000) discoversindeed that among all the sectors gas, water supply, sanitation, electricityand communication sectors play the vital role. The 3i Network (1973),Infrastructure Development Finance Company Delhi, Indian Institute ofTechnology (IIT) Kanpur, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad has suppliedample information about infrastructure development.

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There are, several scholars who gave a shot tocapture the sight of urban development both national and regional level, associationbetween growth and socioeconomic development and various aspect of urban services.The relationship between urbanization and socio-economic development in Indiain early nineties has been brought out by Banerjee – Guha (2001). Thefact that urbanization and development go hand in hand and has been wellbrought out by Krishnanaiah and Ramaiah (2002) for the state of AndhraPradesh and Phadke and Mukherjee (2004) for the state of Maharastra. The overtaxedpublic amenities and inadequate infrastructure at different hierarchic levelsof urban centres have drawn the attention of scholars to focus on this problem.Saxena (1972) has applied least square and correlation co-efficientmethods to examine the relationship between population growth and civicservices and observes that civic amenities in Dehradun are lagging behind dueto its explosive population growth. ChakravarthyCommittee’s (1981)work in piecing together the identification of backward region is a relativestudy of infrastructure backwardness. It has regarded the problem ofbackwardness as multidimensional and proposed the criteria to know the backwardregions. The objective was providing appropriate approach towards theformulation of a plan for each backward area.

Joshi(1990), delivers an inclusiveaccount of the development of infrastructure in India. He demonstrates thatinterstate disparities in level of development did not decline between 1960-61and 1985-86. Joshi finds a strong positive relationship between the level ofinfrastructure and the level of development.Anant(1994) has assembled indices ofinfrastructure availability for twenty-five Indian states for the year 1985-90.He took twenty-four infrastructure variables and classified into eight sectorsnamely, agriculture, banking, electricity, communications, transport,education, health and civil-administration. The first five sectors were groupedas economic infrastructure and the next two constituted the socialinfrastructure, further it was aggregated using principal component analysis.

The indices showed that interstate unevenness in social infrastructure exceedsthat in economic infrastructure.Joshi,B.M. (1999), Author highlyfocused on study of the plan outlays for infrastructure at the All-India andthe state level. The growth of infrastructure in the country has been tracedmeticulously over the planning period.

Inter-state disparities in developmenthave been examined and correlated with disparities in the infrastructuralfacilities. The author then examined in detail the growth and regionalimbalances in infrastructure in the state of U.P. A distinctive feature of thestudy is the presentation of the composite indices of economic development andinfrastructure at the districts level and the examination of the relationshipbetween the two. Lastly, the author emphasized the various issues ininfrastructure planning, identifies the various deficiencies in this respectand presents a policy framework for infrastructure development.BiplabDasgupta(1993)  in his keynote address delivered at theEastern Region Seminar on “Urban Basic Services and local participation”explained various issues regarding basic services, such as, inadequacy ofservices, coverage of the services, planning of the services. He gave someclues on the solution of the problem regarding the urban services. According tohim quality and quantity of services ultimately depend upon local economy.

Inhis address M.N.Buch (1973) concluded that there should be aparticipatory approach from both end Municipal administration and its citizen.

There should be contribution of its citizen towards the municipal resources. Areport prepared by the Public Affairs Centre (2002), a non-profit thinktank provides an assessment of key public services like education, road andtransportation, drinking water, health, sanitation and also a data base and setof bench marks to measure the progress and performance of these services over aperiod of time. Study shows that a significant portion of users are onlypartially satisfied with the provision of these services. AmitabhaKundu, Soumen Bugchi and Debolina Kundu (1999) are of opinion that state wise disparities in thelevel of urban amenities were extremely high in the nineties. Further authorssay that government and parasitical institutions have not exhibited sensitivityin favour of backward statistics of infrastructure.

Murthy Nirmala, Indira,Hirway, P.Panch mukhi and I.Satia (1990) found in their paper that India’ssocial services were used relatively little by the poor. The health andeducation of the poor has improved but not as much for the population as awhole. Existing capacity and resources are inadequate particularly foreducation and health. Economic literature is rich with studies oneducation and health sector in India identifying problem areas, providingsolutions, estimating investment requirements, making recommendations forpolicy and institutional changes. PROBE (1999) Survey has been a landmark study on education in the country. It brings out the inadequacy of schoolinfrastructure and services.

Basic facilities such as furniture, black boards,toilet, playgrounds and teaching aids are missing if not in most publicschools. World Bank (2002) describes the factors which influence thecompletion of primary level of school education of children in the povertycontext. Report comments that enrolment is not a big issue any more; butattendance, transition, completion and learning outcomes are emerging biggestchallenges in developing countries. Many authors describe the factorsresponsible for the lack of primary education in India. Among them Basu(1995), Dreze and Sen (1995) explained the factors mainly as aninsufficient government commitment. Tan and Mingat (1992) Dreze and Sen(1995) describe it due to low levels of budget allocation. Dreze andGaredar (1996) describe the reason behind lack of primary education asgeneral public’s weak monitoring of education and indifference to education ingeneral, and primary education in particular and restricted use of fiscaltransfer from the central government.

Consequently, basic education has beenlargely ignored by some state government. Banerji (2000) has shown that schoolis available at short distances. So question is why quite a large number ofslum dwellers are still less educated.Rathor(2003) has pointed out thateconomic problems were one of the main reasons why children can’t attend schoolfrom slum.

Mehrotra (2006) based on UNICEF survey on urban areas inseven Indian states, monthly Indian Analytics (2005) has prepared a report onstatus of private primary schools in India. The report highlights the case formore rapidly growing private primary schools in India. It also finds that manyparents not only recognize the value of educating their children but alsowilling to invest the meagre resources they can afford. De, A., M.

Majumdar,M.Samson and C.Noronha (2000) also found deep and widespreaddissatisfaction with government and public aided schools. Garg(1995) in her study documents theimportance of public facilities not so much as a first entry point for the poorbut as facilities that are accessed if ailment continues.

Studies have alsofound that the lack of a systematic and well-functioning referral system asaffecting the accessibility of the poor. Sahni and Kshirsagar (1993)elaborated health infrastructure especially in urban slum areas. He discussedthe institutional set up for urban health service in slum areas. Muraleedharan,VR and Sunil Nandraj (1998) have explained the role of Private Health CareSector in India.

They highlighted the poor availability and accessibility ofpublic health system in urban areas due to lack of well organised public healthcare system. According to their opinion smaller cities and rural areas are farfrom all available evidence, quite underserved both by private and publicsectors.The World DevelopmentReport of 1993, titled “Investing in Health”, highlighted several points onimportance of infrastructure and the poor state of infrastructure in manydeveloping countries.

In some countries the under-funding of lower facilitieshas been aggravated by the creation of multiple levels of outpatientfacilities, none of which functions well. At the same time


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