Wheat is the most significant cereal grain in the world, contributing to 20% of the total dietary calories in the human diet (Shiferaw et al., 2013; Nadeem et al.
, 2010). Since the rapid increase of the global population in the late 1950’s from 2.6 billion to 7.4 billion, the demand for improved agricultural production has continuously augmented. Today, 430 million metric tons of domesticated modern wheat of the Aestivum, Aegilops, Turgidum, and Durum taxa are produced worldwide each year (Faris, 2014). In consequence of the universal dependence on this cereal grain, it is presumed that wheat is an essential component of the daily diet, providing essential carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibers, and minerals.
However, in reality, the effects of the mass consumption of hybridized wheat on human health are detrimental (Pusztai, 1993; Siguel, 1994; Nadeem et al., 2010; Sayer, 2015). The wheat that is currently consumed is not the same as einkorn, the ancient strand civilization was developed upon. Modern wheat is an industrial substance that has been radically altered over the past 50 years by agricultural scientists with a solitary focus: an increase in yield (Fan, 2008; Pingali, 2012; Shiferaw et al., 2013; Davis, 2015; Brown et al., 2016). This incessant hybridization oriented toward higher agronomic yield rather than nutritional quality has generated a substance that’s genetic alterations are linked to devastating immune responses in humans—intestinal inflammation, celiac disease, autoimmune diseases, and heart disease—and direct connections between wheat and type I and II diabetes (Davis, 2015; Brown et al.
, 2016; Fan, 2008; Melnick, 2014; Sayer, 2013; Sayer, 2015; Garven et al., 2006; Fan, 2008).Despite this information, dwarf wheat has replaced 99% of all wheat grown worldwide due to its extraordinary capacity for high yield (Davis, 2015; Tang, 2017). The economic incentive for producing these dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties was solidified during the Green Revolution in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Due to genetic alterations in the gliadin protein, which alters the gluten structure in a substance, and insertion of genes that code for the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)–a glycoprotein that is composed of the same disulfide bonds that enable the durability of vulcanized rubber–there has been an increase in the kneadable and binding qualities of wheat–essential to all commercial baking (Wright, 1992). These genetic alterations enable the altered species to be utilized as both staple foods and vital industrial substances. However, the precise dietary substance that is both supporting the global population and is central the transformability of industrial applications, triggers harmful immune responses in the human body (Schmitz, 1973; Lantican, 2002; Reynolds, 2005; Atchison, 2009; Kiss, 2012).
Since the subsequent rise of chronic disease after the Green Revolution, United States dietary guidelines have continually instructed the populace to abide by a lower fat higher carbohydrate diet (FAO, 2017). Yet, these universally trusted models for healthy eating are encouraging the consumption of the substance that is a primary cause of this modern health crisis (American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 1994; Gross, 2003). These healthy eating models are not based on any nutritional science, but instead highlight the dilemma of inaccurate federal promotion of nutritional health to the American public (Nestle, 1993; Davis, 2015). The population is consequently taught to eat “healthy servings” of whole grains every day despite the multitude of available scientific evidence explicitly outlining that modern dwarf wheat elicits dysfunction and disease in humans. This misinformation about the physiological effects of modern wheat is perpetuating chronic disease among the American populace.