The US withdrawal made many problems for people on both sides.
The Americans suffered mainly from the indignity of loosing and also the consequences of there use of things like Agent Orange..The Vietnamese people suffered by having the aftermath of the US actions,they suffered famine and the significant problems of having deformed children. The effects of chemical warfare,although people had speculated about long term effects,theyonly really became apparent after the war.Like the links of Agent Orange with cancer,then in 1985 thefirst ideas that illness may be passed through generations were considered but were not proved until 1993.
The land was badly contaminated by the use of chemicals,Vietnam had gone from one of the major rice producing countries to not being able to grow any thing,not even the relatively small amount to survive on a subsistence level. The Vietnamese people were then forced to import food,this began economic problems as there was no money to help theses people.Especially as inflation was at 700% and the Russians stooped providing the country with aid in 1991 The debree from the war posed a threat to Vietnamese people in unexploded land mines and sharp pieces of metal and so the unsuitability to farm the land or build on it. Other wars broke out in Vietnam with Cambodia and China,numerous people decided to leave.
Many of these by boat,as many people as possible would be crammed into small vessels before sailing for Hong Kong or Thailand.Many of these boats were attacked by pirates or sank.Roughly 50,000 of the ‘boat people’ drowned.About a million were successful in traveling west settling in Britain and in the US.
Things began to look up when, in 1993 the Americans allowed the international monetary fund and world bank to start investing in Vietnam.Then the trade embargo was lifted by 1995.Only 20 years after the US withdrawal were full diplomatic relations rees.