(1) The sources of ancient history are divided into four categories. Name each of them, and brieflydescribe two of those categories.
The sources of information we can draw upon to discover more about our ancient history are divided into four categories; Archaeology (Classical), Coins (numismatics), Epigraphy (inscriptions) and Literature. Coins were invented sometime before 600 BC are a valuable resource which are found in vast quantities. They are virtually age-resistant which has enabled their near-perfect preservation. They are useful because their designs, manufacture and materials used reveal alot about their makers and users aswell as giving us a portrait of their Ruler and other artworks. Epigrahy is the study of incriptions. Among the older Greek inscriptions are those on vases, coins, votive offerings, statues, and the like.
In addition, there are accounts of expenditures in temples, annals, codes of laws, decrees, bookkeeping accounts, lists of citizens, ostraca, and many graffiti (wall scribblings) or the most common, on gravestones. Inscriptions are literally innumerable and provide a wealth of insight into the ancient world. The word Polis has at times been translated into the word ‘City/State’, but considering that we have no modern-day equivalent whereas to compare it by, this terminology is not entirely correct. The term ‘City/State’ tends to be more descriptive of its physical attributes, however a Polis was conceptual as well as physical.
Considering its complexity and structure, a more suitable term would perhaps be a ‘community of people’. This understanding of its meaning is vital in order to grasp the fullness of Greek history, thought and achievement. A polis was a small, independent, self-sufficient, self-governing community. There were hundreds of them scattered over the Greek peninsula. A polis usually consisted of 2000-5000 citizens (adult males), with the exc.