What is translanguaging? What is the meaning of translanguaging form language and bilingualism point of view on the one hand, and for teaching and learning process and bilingual education on the other? Translanguaging is a new and evolving topic. Cen Williams Bilingual first used this Walsh word in the schools of Wales in 1980s and after publishing the two books, Baker’s Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (2011) and Ofelia Garc?a’s (2009a) Bilingual Education in the 21st Century, it achieved relative reputation. Baker (2011) in his book defined Translanguaging as “The process of making meaning, shaping experiences, gaining understanding and knowledge through the use of two languages”. It is a process in which multilingual language users, use their language in a dynamic and integrated way to mediate complex social and cognitive activities, managing an effective communication and in order to learning. In short, we can say translanguaging is an approach to the use of language, bilingualism and the education. As it receives more attention, scholars considered translanguaging as a helping device for educating. Cummins (2008) States that Translanguaging meaning is more than just accepting or tolerating multilingual children who use their own language at school. He claims that considerable con?dence can be placed in the positive outcomes of bilingual education. Therefore, due to the increasing interest in this category and its educational aspects teachers are also interested in the pedagogical achievements of this practice. However, the active teaching of translanguaging has raised serious practical and theoretical questions that have not so far received good responses and have not been adequately discussed in this regard. The purpose of this article is to critically examine different findings about translanguaging and its relationship with culture and education.
Perhaps it would be surprising if you knew that the first scientists who traced the subject of Trans were biologists, not linguists. Two Chilean biologists, Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela, who presented the theory of autopoeisis in 1973. Autopoeisis argues that we cannot separate the biological and social history of actions from the ways in which someone perceive the world. Maturana and Varela state our experience, is rooted in our structure and make our knowledge. Our knowledge mostly comes from action and practice and is not simply based on acquiring the relevant features of a pre-given world. Maturana and Varela (1998: 26) “All doing is knowing, and all knowing is doing”. Based on autopoeisis view they state life their observations about language:
It is by languaging that the act of knowing, in the behavioral coordination which is language, brings forth a world. We work out our lives in a mutual linguistic coupling, not because language permits us to reveal ourselves but because we are constituted in language in a continuous becoming that we bring forth with others. (1998: 234–235).
A. L. Becker (1998) was another scholar who expressed his views on languaging. He argued that language is not just a code or a system of rules, but what he perceives as languaging, forms our experiences, preserves them, retrieves them and communicates with them when needed. Becker believes that the function of language is the use of prior knowledge of language in a new context. In terms of Becker, the purpose of learning through trans is not simply to learn codes and rules and forms of language, but to enter a previous linguistic and cultural experience in a new context for learning, ‘a new way of being in the world’ (1995: 227).
Followed by Baker, an Argentinean linguist named Walter Mignolo states that languaging is not a simply a system of syntax, semantic and phonetic rules, but it is a way of thinking and communicating between languages in oral and written forms.
I continue this review by definition of bilingualism. Haugen (1956) defined the term of bilingual as: “People with a number of different language skills, having in common only that they are not monolingual” He knows a bilingual a person who knows two languages”. Uriel Weinreich (1974) stated a similar definition: ‘The practice of alternately using two languages will be called bilingualism, and the persons involved, bilingual’. Two other important terms are multilingual and plurilingual. Multilingual means knowing and using more than two languages and plurilingual means an ability to use several languages at different level for different purposes. Similarly, a bilingual community or classroom are those in them people speak in two or more languages. The question that arises here is whether a bilingual person has exactly the same proficiency in different skills in both languages. The answer to this question is definitely “no”.Since bilinguals will use different languages in different situations and with different people. Thus, bilinguals may be stronger in each language in different domains (Baker, 2011).