As a result of ever increasing population and complexities of day- to-day routine life, the chances of a person to meet with accidental injuries are increasing.
Anything that happens unexpectedly and by chance, affecting health of a person can be called as an accident. Accidents can occur at any time and at any place, usually at odd times and at odd places where a doctor is not generally available. The severity of accident may vary from skin abrasions which may be associated with increased heart beating due to fear upto sudden death of the patient. The accidents require immediate attention and prompt treatment.
If the person does not get medical help in time the condition may get worse and his life may be in danger. In such cases the first aid is the kind of treatment which is given to the victim till the medical aid by a doctor is available. First aid is only the first step in treating an injured person in case of accident or sudden illness. It does not mean a complete care and cure of the injuries. After first aid the victim must be taken to a doctor or a hospital.
Objects of First Aid:
To prevent any danger to life. 2. To prevent further injury and deterioration of the condition of the patient. 3. To give relief from pain. 4.
To make medical care available at the earliest. The first aid can be given by any person who has got training or has been taught the underlying principles of first aid. The first aider should have the following qualities: 1. He should remain as calm and cool as- possible.
2. He must be alert and note down the causes and signs of injury. 3. He should be tactful to gain confidence of the patient as well as the persons standing nearby. 4.
He should be able to control the crowd and take help from onlookers. 5. He should have self-confidence and must be poliu: with the patient as well as his attendants. 6. He should have sufficient knowledge to gauge (judge) that out of several injuries which are to be treated first. 7. He should look around for help and send someone to inform the doctor and arrange for ambulance if need arises while he himself should remain with the patient to take his care. 8.
In case of serious accident he should immediately inform the nearby police.
Principles of First Aid:
1. Reach the site of accident as early as possible because the saving of life may depend on the promptness of action. 2. Take first aid material along with you if it is easily available. 3. Do not waste time asking unnecessary questions.
4. Find out the cause of injury. 5. Immediately separate the victim from the cause of accident e.g.
fire, electrical current, falling building, poisonous insects etc. and remove him to a safe place. 6.
Find out whether the patient is conscious or unconscious, dead or alive. 7. Decide the priority of giving first aid measures e.g. restoration of cardiac functions, restoration of breathing, stoppage of bleeding etc.
8. Arrange for medical help. 9. Keep the patient warm and comfortable as far as possible.
10. If the patient is conscious, give encouragement and reassure him that he is alright. 11. If any specific equipment is not available try to improvise it.