Water:H20 also known as water consists of 2

Water:H20 also known as water consists of 2 atoms of hydrogens and 1 atom oxygen. Water is a simple covalent molecule the 2 hydrogens and the one oxygen are held together through with covalent bonds, because water is a molar molecule water molecule is held together by hydrogen bond. Another to add onto this is that covalent bonds within the molecule is strong between the hydrogen and the oxygen but and the other bonds between the other molecules are weak.  A polar molecule has imbalanced charge the atom positive and the other half negative this is how and why water is a polar molecule. This is due to the electronegativity difference of oxygen and hydrogen.

Water is important in human life. Water is used for various tasks within the body. For example in our cells, tissues and organs. Water is used as a solvent for example nutrients that are water soluble are body to do other activities. I found from the united utilities website that the water comes out the tap at around about 6.

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5.  Which is slightly acidic. Water is a good solvent for chemical reactions, because molecules that are polar; dissolve in the water. Electrolytes our needed in our body to regulate functions in our body for example nerve and muscle functions. Water is a excellent transport medium in living organisms because it stays in the liquid state over a large temperature range. We need to balance the PH in our water to stop pesticides and stop the transfer of microorganisms through the water we consume, this is because we can vary the PH of the water.

Water has a large specific heat capacity compared to other molecules. Water can be a PH regulator it strengthens the plants capability to protect itself from root diseases and some stem diseases too. Electrolytes play an important role for example when the electrolyte concentration rises, water comes out the cell through diffusion, water does this through osmosis. Osmosis is a feature to where water moves from a high place of high water potential to a low place across the cell membrane. The cell membrane is permeable. Transpiration is a process where water evaporates from the surface of the leave on the plant.

Xylem transports water. Its Carbohydrates: For a molecule to be classed a biological molecule such as a carbohydrate, it needs to consist of only carbon hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates also known as CH2O, consists of one carbon, two hydrogens and one oxygen. Carbohydrates have a glycosidic bond which is a type of covalent bond that joins the carb to another molecule. The function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body and its cells too.

Such substance as polysaccharides in real life terms is cellulose. Cellulose is found in plants. Cellulose is a type of carbohydrates which is used to protect the outer layer of organisms. Carbohydrates are combined with water (hydro) and also combined with carbon. Some molecules are smaller than others. These are examples of sugars (saccharides). Only one sugar is called a (monosaccharides). Mono means one and ‘poly’ means more than one.

Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide. Many, monosaccharides join together to form a polysaccharide. A example of a monosaccharide is fructose. A example of a disaccharide is lactose. A example of a polysaccharide is amylose.

Use of iodine and benedict’s solution:Test for reducing sugar and non-reducing sugarBenedict’s solution is a alkalinic solution is made up off copper 11 sulphate. When a reducing solution is heated it produces a red soluble liquid which is copper 11 oxide. One use of benedict’s solution is to detect carbohydrates in a solution. Benedict’s solution identifies monosaccharides and some disaccharides. Benedict’s solution is red if carbohydrates (starch) is present then it will then it will turn red/blue/black colour. A saccharide is a simple sugar. Monosaccharide is a single saccharide molecule. The most common and the one people are most likely to know is glucose which is another variation of sugar.

There are two different types of sugar (glucose) molecules are A and B. There is also monosaccharides for example fructose, ribose, galactose and deoxyribose. You can test for these with benedict’s solution instead of it going blue it won’t it will go orange if glucose is present.   How do simple sugars combine?Simple sugars combine together through a glycosidic bond. Glycosidic are covalent bonds that are held together by glycosidic. This bond is a ring shaped sugar molecule that combines to another molecule. Glycosidic bonds for through a condensation reaction, so therefore one water molecule is made during the process of the formation of the glycoside.

Unlike in the reverse reaction on water molecule is used up. Simple sugars as glucose and fructose which all have the same molecular formula. These two are monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest type of simple suagrs and they the bond cannot be broken down into smaller suagrs . glucose is the our bodies can use to make ATP, which is the energy molecules of our cells need. Fructose on the other hand is found in honey and fruits so therefore it is natural. Where glucose is found in almost every food.

C6H1206 There is twice as many many hydrogens atoms as carbon atoms. Glucose is similar to the ratio of CH20.  This shows the CHO ratio Proteins: The four types of levels of structure:1.   Primary2.   Secondary3.

  Tertiary4.   QuaternaryThe way we test whether proteins are present in a solution or a compound is we use Buiret solution. This is a blue is a blue solution. If proteins are presents then then there will be a colour change from pink to purple. We could carry this out with food or a compound or a liquid solution. Primary:One of the four types of structures to build proteins is primary.

These types are made up of long polypeptide chains consisting of amino acids and that are held together by peptide bonds. Only 20 out of 250 are found in the human body, these are used for protein synthesis. The primary structure is the simplest variation structure out of all four. This shows how amino acids join together via peptide bonds to form polypeptides. 20 different amino acids which are found in the human body.   Secondary:One other type is secondary. After the primary structure has formed and the bonds have bonded, next the polypeptide bonds fold up due to opposite charges in the amino acids. Once this stage is complete two more structures can be formed.

From the amino acids it can coil to form a alpha helix or folds to form a beta pleated sheets.  This diagram shows how the amino acids can coil to form a alpha helix or folds to form beta pleated sheets.      This is an example of a amino acid. Tertiary:There are two types of tertiary structures.

For example Fibrous and Globular. The Fibrous has similarly to the DNA shape of the double helix. In comparison the globular which is a extended structure.                                                                                                                                                                   I’m going to talk about the differences between fibrous protein vs globular proteins.

Fibrous proteinThis protein is insoluble in water This protein has a extended protein structure This protein has a quaternary structure and is held together more than often by covalentUsed for bones, tendons, muscles, and hair ectGlobular This particular structure is soluble in water This protein holds a secondary structure with a mixture a-helix and b-sheetsNon covalent force bridgesUsed in enzymes, transport and hormones ect A number of different bonds involved in the tertiary structure of proteins, those bonds are:1.   Ionic interaction2.   Hydrogen bonding3.   Sulphur bridges4.

  Van der Waal’s forces. Ionic interaction:Ionic interaction is a chemical bond this kind of bond happens when two oppositely charges attract due to electrostatic forces. Electrostatic forces are two positives repel and one positive atom and one negative atom attract because of the whole ideology of opposites attract.

Amino acids in polypeptide for example has different charges that cause them to bond together because opposites attract. Doing this they form a ionic bond. Hydrogen bonding:Hydrogen bonding is a electrostatic force of attraction between hydrogen and other atoms. Hydrogen in hydrogen bonding only bonds with high electronegative atoms and examples of this is oxygen, fluorine and nitrogen. When atoms like hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen atoms bonds together they form long chains of molecules.  This is a example of a tertiary structure that builds proteins.https://socratic.org/questions/how-are-hydrogen-bonds-related-to-cohesion Quaternary structure:Some proteins are made up off more than one polypeptide chain.

This is basically the quaternary structure. These proteins sometimes contain essential functions groups, these types are known as prosthetic groups. This is the non-protein part and it used for a specific job. This particular type is one of the main bits because its role is the functioning of the protein. An example of a protein with this particular structure (quaternary structure) and a prosthetic group is Haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is found in the blood stream, in the red blood cells. Many of the polypeptide bonds; used to from the quaternary structure;  when these bond they form quaternary protein molecules. A well known example is haemoglobin.

Sulphur bridges:Sulphur bridges which form between two amino acids called cysteine and methionine these contain sulphur, disulfur bonds form between the thiol through a process called oxidative folding. A reaction called radox is responsible for the sulphur bridges to form. Van der Waals Forces:Van der Waal’s are intermolecular forces. There is two type’s permeant and temporary dipoles. Temporary is called ‘London dispersion forces’. They are weak forces present between non-polar molecules.

On the other hand permeant dipoles are temporary which means that they are between polar molecules. Polar molecules have a permeant delta positive end and a delta negative end. These oppositely charged end attract each other. Dipole-dipole are slightly stronger than London dispersion forces.https://brilliant.org/wiki/van-der-waals-force/ Nucleic Acids:As I’ve stated before Ribose which has a nucleic structure or phosphate.

The standard polynucleotide structure has bonds which help for the condensation reaction.The double helix method is compulsory for the DNA.Importance of nucleic acids for proteins which helps with our body’s metabolism.Neurotransmitters in our central nervous system.Antibodies which play a massive part in our immune system.Hormones.For transport of stuff in our body from one place to another.

Proteins, for growth and repair.Animals:Blood clotting animals when the blood clots in the body so therefore there is blood starvation.Controlling gene compression because nucleic acids play a large role of coding the genes and the DNA.

Structure of a nucleic tide and how they form polynucleotide Functions of dna is deoxyribose the double helix the two coiled genetic information instead of the single coil of ribose. Nucleotides has three things such as a nitrogenous base which are adenine ect or in this one it is RNA (ribonucleic acid) thymine is replaced by uracil. Deoxyribose is a substance made up off 5 sugars because there is not a oxygen present on one of its carbons.the condensation reaction is quite similar to how a peptide bond is formed between 2 amino acids deoxyribose is DNA which is double stranded. Nucleotide is joined together via a covalent bond. Roughly a RNA which is the simplest form of polynucleotide this type consists of single chain. The name of this polynucleotide comes from a sugar called ribonucleic acid (RNA).

the deoxyribose is a pentose sugar. Each DNA molecule have 2 polynucleotide chains which is held together by a ladder like structure. Each chain runs parallel to each other but in the opposite direction. Each rung/bit of the ladder is a twin pair of nitrogenous bases. The sugar phosphate backbones coil around one another contributing the making of the ladder into a staircase. This superstructure is the double helix.

DNA is the store of the genetic information. This holds all the codes for all the proteins. The DNA is double stranded exact copies of each other hence from one generation to another.

The bases from base pairs two hydrogen bonds form between the baes. DNA stores the genetic information that is used to build up organisms and humans and some produce essential proteins. The complamentary pairs consist of adenine and thymine and the next one is guanine and ctyosone.                Further information about nucleic acids:A nucleotide is a sugar, alkaline and it has a phosphate group in its structure. Its made up of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, hydrogen and nitrogen. Substances such as ribosomes, deoxyribose are two extremely products in nucleic acids and nucleotides.

They form DNA and RNA. the DNA instructions are transported by the RNA to the correct order for amino aicds during the process of protein synthesis. The making of the amino acids into proteins happen in the process called translation of mRNA (messenger (RNA)).

Muscle contraction in animalsThere are two main muscle filaments called myosin and actin. Muscle contraction occurs when the two filaments in a series of repeated occurence.muscle contraction occurs when the thin and thicker myosin filaments slide over each other. This process is driven by cross bridges which come out from the myosin filaments and interact with the actin as ATP is being hydrolysed. Lipids Lipids also known as fats.

Lipids are a macromolecule. Which is a large molecule. Lipids are made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms. H, 02 and C are the building blocks for biological molecules.

Lipids are soluble in nonpolar solvents an example of chemicals that will dissolve benzene and carbon tetrachloride.Fats can be perceived in two different ways for example saturated and unsaturated fats. One is good type of fats and one courses you to have high cholesterol; the fat hardens in the blood vessels and because the blood cannot pass the heart is starved of blood. So risk of a heart attack. Unsaturated fats are in solid at room temperature. Where as saturated is the bad type which has no double bonds which courses it to be a liquid.

Triglycerides are the largest type of group of lipids. These particular types can be used as a energy source to power a household object for example. Diglycerides are the similar too glycerides are made up of too fatty chains (acid) this is covalently bonded to glycerides molecules by esterification reactions.Lipids are excessively important to animals they help in storage of energy for when the animal needs to use it.

The more food the animal eats the more energy the animal consumes. The fat cells are floating around but not used this is because they can store more energy than carbohydrates and proteins. This is a type of phospholipids these are vital towards the components of the cell membrane. Cystic fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, liver, kidneys, intestines and the skin. The long effects are of this disorder is difficulty inhibiting oxygen and exhaling and also coughing up mucus this is because off the constant lung infections in a domino effect. This genetic is caused by mutation in the DNA in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene.

This plasma protein exports the CL ions out the cell through a process called active transport.Cystic fibrosis stops the permeability of the cell membrane. This attracts CL- ions and na+ ions to the cell which then enters the cell.

The sodium NA+ are attracted to the CL- they do this because opposites attract. The parts of the cell are thick so because of this water H20 and also due to high NA+ concentration. CFTR is a protein which has a plasma membrane surrounding the cell. In a human who has cystic fibrosis their lung, in contrast to a healthy one, produces more mucus. When the body produces more mucus than normal it is transported around the body which is unhealthy. The lung surface is dehydrated and the mucus adheres to the airways which has a impact on the patient on the oxygen flow.

Doing this favours microorganisms growth this causes chronic infections. Chronic infection in the patient goes and then comes back sometimes worse. So over time the chronic infection gets worse. When or if this happens then the body fights back via the white blood cells. The white blood cells engulf the abnormal cell (phagocytosis).

The DNA from the dead contributes to the thick sputum. Sputum is a thick liquid (viscosity) due to the high viscosity the sputum cannot be removed by the ciliary escalator. The overall effect is the mucus obstructs the airways and may cause further inflammation. Sweat. The protein CFTR works differently in the skin. The CFTR channel is unable to transport chloride (Cl) into the duct cells producing the sweat (hypotonic bed of sweat) which has a high salt concentration making the sweat more salty. So therefore a lot of salt remains on the skin. As a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis sweat can be collected and analysed which will contribute to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

The effect Cystic Fibrosis has on the Pancreas is thick digestive juices clogs the passage from the Pancreas which travels through to the small intestine (duodenum). Harm may be caused such as chronic inflammation of the Pancreas; because this fails the Pancreas fails altogether to secrete digestive enzymes; because the digestive enzymes are secreted food is not broken down and not absorbed.On the National Health Service (NHS) various treatments are available  Antibiotics to prevent reduce and treat inflammation of the chest. The drugs prescribed to treat this contain enzyme supplements or muliti vitimins and fat soluble substances which helps reduce chest inflammation.

Drugs to make the viscosity of the mucus lower so it is thinner and this helps the person cough the mucus up easier. Drugs to help widen the airways and reduce internal inflammation. The drug prescribed may contain enzyme supplements or multivitamins especially fat soluble and mucolytics which contributes to the decrease in inflammation.Special techniques and devices to help contribute to treatment of the patient and help discard the mucus from the lungs. Doctors and medical specialised recommend activities that tire and make the patient out of breath, for example running or swimming. Older patients may to do stretches full movement of the joints and fully movement of the joints and muscles.

Drugs to help that absorb and digest food more efficiently.The person would have to follow a strict diet which involves taking supplements to prevent malnutrition. A diet which such a patient needs to consume contains maccies kfc high fatty foods or foods in high energy, rich in fat and protein.A lung transplant may be needed if over a long time period the lungs become greatly damaged. Lactose intolerance:Lactose is a simple sugar found in mostly dairy products such as milk/breast milk. Lactose is a disaccharide which is made in lactating mammals as food and energy for little ones.

Lactose is digested into a monosaccharide glucose and galactose by the biological catalyst lactase the process happens in the small intestine. As animals when they are little only conceive milk as part of the weaning process the volume of lactose decreases after infancy. Without lactase, lactose will flow into the small intestine to get broken down by the probiotic bacteria. As part of bacterial fermentation process large amounts of gas are produced which gives the patient abdominal pain. This may also lead too other symptoms such as abdominal bloating, cramps and flatulence. A percent of the human population carries a mutated gene which helps preserve the gene to adulthood.

If the bond of the lactose is not broken then glucose and galactose cannot be separated so the lactose travels into the large intestine. Doing this is where the trouble starts to occur with the bacterial fermentation is occurred so it gives of acids and gas.The main symptoms of lactose intolerance is diarrhoea, gas, bloating, swelling in the abdomen, abdominal pain, abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, headaches or migraines and acne. These can happen from 30 minutes too 2 hours after the consumption of dairy products and can scale too basic to very bad. Most reactions are caused by the patient’s body not having enzymes to digest the lactose sugar.We can treat lactose intolerance in many ways such as using organic fermented dairy.

Goat milk. Take digestive enzymes. Taking lactose is the substance that the digestive tract requires.  Supplements of probiotics. In corporate calcium rich food. Consume food which are high in vitamin.

Add bone broth to the patient’s diet. Fruit and vegetables. Add non-dairy probiotic rich foods to your diet.

Use coconut oil for cooking.What causes lactose intolerance?GeneticsAgingDietStress


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