Villa actual artist, Hadrian commissioned for the massive

Villa Adriana Hadrians Villa Introduction to Art History 1 Laurine DiPaolo In Tivoli, Hadrians Villa (Villa Adriana) Illustration 7-52 on page 212 of the textbook (A), Gardners Art Through the Ages1 was designed to be a home for the Roman Emperor Hadrian in 117 A.D. Built by the request of the Emperor Hadrian, the Villa Adriana located in Tivoli- Rome, Italy is a vast living complex that even today continues to demonstrate the richness and massive power of Ancient Rome. It is a vast area with many pools, baths, and fountains in Classical Greek architecture. Construction began on top of the foundation of a pre-existing villa that belonged to his wife Vibia Sabina. The final project was done after 20 years. It was a place where lavish ceremonies and splendid feasts took place. The villa was loaded with art works rich decorations were mix together harmoniously. It acted as a classical symbol, it lauded the heroic past, it heralded a Hadrian future. Although he was not the actual artist, Hadrian commissioned for the massive structure to be built and is therefore the closest to the source of the art as history provides us. Information on Hadrian (Patron of Villa Adrianna) Official Title Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus AugustusName Known by Hadrianus AugustusDates January 24, 76 – July 10, 138Place of Birth Italica, in Hispania Baetica, or RomeParents of Hadrian P. Aelius Afer (whose ancestors had come from Hadria in Picenum) and Domitia Paulina (from Gades)Wife Trajans grand-niece Vibia Sabina Hadrian Ruled the Roman Empire From A.D. 117-138 Hadrian was probably not from the city of Rome. The Augustan History says Hadrians family was originally from Pompeys hometown of Pinelope. The Villa, located 28 km (17.4 mi) from the Capital, on the Monti Tiburtini, could be reached via the ancient Roman roads Tiburtina and Prenestina, or else by the River Aniene. The area was chosen for its plentiful waters and availability of four aqueducts that passed through to Rome Anio Vetus, Anio Nobus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia. One can still find here the Sulphur water springs (the Acque Albule) that the Emperor enjoyed todays Tivoli Baths Given archaeological resources, we know that the Roman villa and the domus were subdivided into different settings with accurate functions and according to a scheme that is often repeated for example, the floor-plan of Hadrians Villa is comparable to those of the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii and the Villa of Poppaea in Oplontis (near Torre Annunziata).Even though the Villa utilizes traditional architectonic language and iconography, it was in any case designed, in a rather different, original style. It is shaped by a series of interdependent and inter-locking structures, and a purpose for each individual one the structure with three exedrae, the Nymph Stadium, a fishing structure, the four-sided portico, the small thermal water baths, and the Praetors (Roman bodyguards) vestibule. The consistencies and the interdependence of the structures connected one to another via guarded access points created for both the privacy and security of the Emperor make it clear that together they created a monumental complex that mirrored Hadrians image as a great and sophisticated man. In fact, this form of structure was used to show off his tastes and inclinations. He reproduced inside this residence the places and monuments that had fascinated him during his innumerable travels. The buildings are constructed of brick, travertine, pozzolana, lime, and tufa, the local source of materials available in the area. The complex contains over 30 buildings, covering an area of at least 1sq Km much of which still unexcavated. The villa features mythological statues and structures from the legends of history. Inside the Villa complex, one can see the Poecile, a huge garden surrounded by an arcade with a swimming pool. This area was built so that one could take walks whether it was winter or summer. One of the most striking and well-preserved areas is is an artificial grotto called the Canopus, a long water basin embellished with columns that were made from a type of material unknown in classical Greek architecture, and marble facsimiles of famous Greek statues, including the Erechtheion caryatids lined the pool (illustration 5-54 on page 134 of the textbook (a) Gardeners through the Ages). The Corinthian style colonnade towards the end towards the temple curve complement this area. The Canopus emphases the importance of space in the Roman planning, it points on the artistic influence of multiple culture and provinces that composed the Roman Empire. Canopus is an example of Roman imperial extravagance it was one of the many pools/baths in Hadrians Villa. It is not clear if it was the most important, however it is the one in better state of preservation from which researchers and archaeologists have learned from.2 Hadrian loved Greek art as well as Roman so much of both were persistent through this area. It culminates in a temple topped by an umbrella dome, and the remains of two bath areas the Grande Terme and the Piccole Terme (the large and small baths or thermae). The former contained a frigidarium or large pool of cold water (open-air) and a round room with a coffered dome these coffers were rather particular in that they opened into five large windows. Covered in valuable and decorative stucco, these structures were purposed for the Imperial Family and their guests. The Grande Terme, reserved for the personnel of the Villa, consisted of a heating system located under the floor, and a circular room outfitted as a Sudatio or sauna. Noteworthy is the large vaulted-arch ceiling in the central room, still in perfect condition (structurally) today, despite the collapse of one of the four supporting piers. Some of the relatively best preserved areas of the villa are the Accademia, the Stadio or arena, the Imperial Palace, the Philosophers Room, the Greek Theatre, and the Piazza doro, a majestic square the purpose of which was to be a representation it was large enough to allow a vast peristyle decorated in refined stucco. Finally, the splendid Teatro Marittimo (Maritime Theatre) is an island of sorts elaborated with an iconic colonnade and circumscribed by a canal. This is where the Emperor isolated himself when he wanted to think amidst silence and tranquility. Hadrian spent more time traveling throughout the empire than any other emperor. When Hadrian traveled to other cities, he implemented public works projects. Hadrian created the post of treasury counsel. He granted Latin rights to many communities and took away their obligation to pay tribute. He was generous with the military and helped to reform it, including building garrisons and forts. He traveled to Britain where he initiated the project of building a protective wall (Hadrians Wall) across Britain to keep the northern barbarians out. Hadrian was generous, he outlawed masters killing their slaves and (an important point for historical fiction writers) changed the law so that if a master was murdered at home, only those slaves who were nearby could be tortured for evidence. He also made the baths separate for men and women. He restored many building, including the pantheon, and moved Neros colossus — he also removed Neros image from the enormous statue. And created many more famous architectural projects.3 Traveling as we know expands our horizons. And as travelers we tend to bring back with us souvenirs of the various places or monuments we have gained knowledge from. As I mentioned Hadrian during his reign also did a lot of traveling through his vast empire. Collecting and recreating series of his souvenirs and reproducing them in his place Villa Adriana. I think he did achieve his idea of what the place was supposed to be and mean. And the enormity of the grounds and location served him well also. The materials were all there by with the travertine mines, even the water supply for the many pools and fountains were in abundant supply. With Hadrians controversial rise to power and his deficiency of popularity, the secluded location of the villa served as protection from the deprecation and the aristocrats, at the same time, it served his desire to stay away from Rome. In a way I also have collected many wonderful souvenirs of Villa Adriana and its surrounding culture. My husbands Family is from that location, so I have experienced first-hand, walking through this majestic Villa many times its beauty. I believe the The Hall with Doric Pillars is representative of Hadrians overall plan, and one of my favorite spots. His choice of an older pavement pattern reflects the Emperors resurgence of the republican styles. As a sense of balance to this classic approach, Hadrian incorporated the styles of various other cultures. The Greek influence on the Doric columns of this structure is just one example. In a broader sense, this coming together of cultures represents the melting pot that was ancient Rome. With the rapid expansion of Rome itself, new cultures were constantly being introduced to the old. So, a vast multicultural conglomeration of everything from art to religion to food. Given the worldly wisdom of Hadrian himself, it is then not at all surprising to find such diversity in a Greek styled hall. Sadly, though like many Roman monuments in late antiquity, the site has been stripped of most of its treasures by numerous people and wars, which explains why some statues from the villa are found in other areas, such as in private collections, museums. This extraction of treasures from the site ended in the 19th century when the government of Italy had its unification process. The Italian government took over the site and now allows national and international special archaeologist groups do the excavations on the grounds of Villa Adriana.4 There is so much more areas in this Villa that havent been uncovered yet. I hope the future generations have a chance to learn about this past history treasure, to me it is very important, and I am sure Hadrian thought about its long-lasting legacy to the history himself, by building this. 1 Kleiner Fred,S Gardners Art Through The Ages, 15th edition. Boston Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. 2014.- (pgs 134- illustration 5-54 of the textbook) 2 web.mit.edu/course/Hadrian Villa Canopus 3 www.roman- emperors.org/Hadrian. 4 Morselli, Chiara, Guide with Reconstructions of Villa Adriana and Villa d Este, Roma Vision s.r.l, 1995 Y, B8L 1(IzZYrH9pd4n(KgVB,lDAeX)Ly5otebW3gpj/gQjZTae9i5j5fE514g7vnO( ,[email protected] /[email protected] 6Q c c

Villa Adriana Hadrians Villa Introduction to Art History 1 Laurine DiPaolo In Tivoli, Hadrians Villa (Villa Adriana) Illustration 7-52 on page 212 of the textbook (A), Gardners Art Through the Ages1 was designed to be a home for the Roman Emperor Hadrian in 117 A.D. Built by the request of the Emperor Hadrian, the Villa Adriana located in Tivoli- Rome, Italy is a vast living complex that even today continues to demonstrate the richness and massive power of Ancient Rome. It is a vast area with many pools, baths, and fountains in Classical Greek architecture. Construction began on top of the foundation of a pre-existing villa that belonged to his wife Vibia Sabina. The final project was done after 20 years. It was a place where lavish ceremonies and splendid feasts took place. The villa was loaded with art works rich decorations were mix together harmoniously. It acted as a classical symbol, it lauded the heroic past, it heralded a Hadrian future. Although he was not the actual artist, Hadrian commissioned for the massive structure to be built and is therefore the closest to the source of the art as history provides us. Information on Hadrian (Patron of Villa Adrianna) Official Title Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus AugustusName Known by Hadrianus AugustusDates January 24, 76 – July 10, 138Place of Birth Italica, in Hispania Baetica, or RomeParents of Hadrian P. Aelius Afer (whose ancestors had come from Hadria in Picenum) and Domitia Paulina (from Gades)Wife Trajans grand-niece Vibia Sabina Hadrian Ruled the Roman Empire From A.D. 117-138 Hadrian was probably not from the city of Rome. The Augustan History says Hadrians family was originally from Pompeys hometown of Pinelope. The Villa, located 28 km (17.4 mi) from the Capital, on the Monti Tiburtini, could be reached via the ancient Roman roads Tiburtina and Prenestina, or else by the River Aniene. The area was chosen for its plentiful waters and availability of four aqueducts that passed through to Rome Anio Vetus, Anio Nobus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia. One can still find here the Sulphur water springs (the Acque Albule) that the Emperor enjoyed todays Tivoli Baths Given archaeological resources, we know that the Roman villa and the domus were subdivided into different settings with accurate functions and according to a scheme that is often repeated for example, the floor-plan of Hadrians Villa is comparable to those of the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii and the Villa of Poppaea in Oplontis (near Torre Annunziata).Even though the Villa utilizes traditional architectonic language and iconography, it was in any case designed, in a rather different, original style. It is shaped by a series of interdependent and inter-locking structures, and a purpose for each individual one the structure with three exedrae, the Nymph Stadium, a fishing structure, the four-sided portico, the small thermal water baths, and the Praetors (Roman bodyguards) vestibule. The consistencies and the interdependence of the structures connected one to another via guarded access points created for both the privacy and security of the Emperor make it clear that together they created a monumental complex that mirrored Hadrians image as a great and sophisticated man. In fact, this form of structure was used to show off his tastes and inclinations. He reproduced inside this residence the places and monuments that had fascinated him during his innumerable travels. The buildings are constructed of brick, travertine, pozzolana, lime, and tufa, the local source of materials available in the area. The complex contains over 30 buildings, covering an area of at least 1sq Km much of which still unexcavated. The villa features mythological statues and structures from the legends of history. Inside the Villa complex, one can see the Poecile, a huge garden surrounded by an arcade with a swimming pool. This area was built so that one could take walks whether it was winter or summer. One of the most striking and well-preserved areas is is an artificial grotto called the Canopus, a long water basin embellished with columns that were made from a type of material unknown in classical Greek architecture, and marble facsimiles of famous Greek statues, including the Erechtheion caryatids lined the pool (illustration 5-54 on page 134 of the textbook (a) Gardeners through the Ages). The Corinthian style colonnade towards the end towards the temple curve complement this area. The Canopus emphases the importance of space in the Roman planning, it points on the artistic influence of multiple culture and provinces that composed the Roman Empire. Canopus is an example of Roman imperial extravagance it was one of the many pools/baths in Hadrians Villa. It is not clear if it was the most important, however it is the one in better state of preservation from which researchers and archaeologists have learned from.2 Hadrian loved Greek art as well as Roman so much of both were persistent through this area. It culminates in a temple topped by an umbrella dome, and the remains of two bath areas the Grande Terme and the Piccole Terme (the large and small baths or thermae). The former contained a frigidarium or large pool of cold water (open-air) and a round room with a coffered dome these coffers were rather particular in that they opened into five large windows. Covered in valuable and decorative stucco, these structures were purposed for the Imperial Family and their guests. The Grande Terme, reserved for the personnel of the Villa, consisted of a heating system located under the floor, and a circular room outfitted as a Sudatio or sauna. Noteworthy is the large vaulted-arch ceiling in the central room, still in perfect condition (structurally) today, despite the collapse of one of the four supporting piers. Some of the relatively best preserved areas of the villa are the Accademia, the Stadio or arena, the Imperial Palace, the Philosophers Room, the Greek Theatre, and the Piazza doro, a majestic square the purpose of which was to be a representation it was large enough to allow a vast peristyle decorated in refined stucco. Finally, the splendid Teatro Marittimo (Maritime Theatre) is an island of sorts elaborated with an iconic colonnade and circumscribed by a canal. This is where the Emperor isolated himself when he wanted to think amidst silence and tranquility. Hadrian spent more time traveling throughout the empire than any other emperor. When Hadrian traveled to other cities, he implemented public works projects. Hadrian created the post of treasury counsel. He granted Latin rights to many communities and took away their obligation to pay tribute. He was generous with the military and helped to reform it, including building garrisons and forts. He traveled to Britain where he initiated the project of building a protective wall (Hadrians Wall) across Britain to keep the northern barbarians out. Hadrian was generous, he outlawed masters killing their slaves and (an important point for historical fiction writers) changed the law so that if a master was murdered at home, only those slaves who were nearby could be tortured for evidence. He also made the baths separate for men and women. He restored many building, including the pantheon, and moved Neros colossus — he also removed Neros image from the enormous statue. And created many more famous architectural projects.3 Traveling as we know expands our horizons. And as travelers we tend to bring back with us souvenirs of the various places or monuments we have gained knowledge from. As I mentioned Hadrian during his reign also did a lot of traveling through his vast empire. Collecting and recreating series of his souvenirs and reproducing them in his place Villa Adriana. I think he did achieve his idea of what the place was supposed to be and mean. And the enormity of the grounds and location served him well also. The materials were all there by with the travertine mines, even the water supply for the many pools and fountains were in abundant supply. With Hadrians controversial rise to power and his deficiency of popularity, the secluded location of the villa served as protection from the deprecation and the aristocrats, at the same time, it served his desire to stay away from Rome. In a way I also have collected many wonderful souvenirs of Villa Adriana and its surrounding culture. My husbands Family is from that location, so I have experienced first-hand, walking through this majestic Villa many times its beauty. I believe the The Hall with Doric Pillars is representative of Hadrians overall plan, and one of my favorite spots. His choice of an older pavement pattern reflects the Emperors resurgence of the republican styles. As a sense of balance to this classic approach, Hadrian incorporated the styles of various other cultures. The Greek influence on the Doric columns of this structure is just one example. In a broader sense, this coming together of cultures represents the melting pot that was ancient Rome. With the rapid expansion of Rome itself, new cultures were constantly being introduced to the old. So, a vast multicultural conglomeration of everything from art to religion to food. Given the worldly wisdom of Hadrian himself, it is then not at all surprising to find such diversity in a Greek styled hall. Sadly, though like many Roman monuments in late antiquity, the site has been stripped of most of its treasures by numerous people and wars, which explains why some statues from the villa are found in other areas, such as in private collections, museums. This extraction of treasures from the site ended in the 19th century when the government of Italy had its unification process. The Italian government took over the site and now allows national and international special archaeologist groups do the excavations on the grounds of Villa Adriana.4 There is so much more areas in this Villa that havent been uncovered yet. I hope the future generations have a chance to learn about this past history treasure, to me it is very important, and I am sure Hadrian thought about its long-lasting legacy to the history himself, by building this. 1 Kleiner Fred,S Gardners Art Through The Ages, 15th edition. Boston Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. 2014.- (pgs 134- illustration 5-54 of the textbook) 2 web.mit.edu/course/Hadrian Villa Canopus 3 www.roman- emperors.org/Hadrian. 4 Morselli, Chiara, Guide with Reconstructions of Villa Adriana and Villa d Este, Roma Vision s.r.l, 1995 Y, B8L 1(IzZYrH9pd4n(KgVB,lDAeX)Ly5otebW3gpj/gQjZTae9i5j5fE514g7vnO( ,[email protected] /[email protected] 6Q c c

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