Victor is similar to the proletariat in that

Victor Frankenstein can be seen in the novel as a symbol for oppressive society, or as a symbol of the bourgeoisie. Frankenstein is a symbol of the ruling class as he comes from a wealthy background, and his view of the world  is shaped by his privileged position and family standing: “My family is one of the most distinguished of Geneva. My ancestors had been for many years counselors and syndics; and my father had filled several public situations with honour and reputation. He was respected by all who knew him, for his integrity and indefatigable attention to public business” (Shelley 40.) Frankenstein’s upper class life, and his entitled attitude shown the Marxist belief that the upper class have no pity on the lower class, as shown by his lack of pity and compassion for the monster.  On the other hand, the monster is a symbol for oppressed people. He is the proletariat that revolts against the bourgeoisie in the constant class struggle. The way the monster is composed directly represents the proletariat. He is created by the bourgeoisie or the upper class, and is composed of various different parts. The monster is composed of bones from charnel-houses, parts from dissecting rooms, and pieces from slaughter-houses (Shelley 58). This is similar to the proletariat in that it “is recruited from all classes of the population” (Marx Manifesto 228). The monster in a way similar to the proletariat, is a mixture of different parts of the human kind. In addition to this, the monster is larger and more powerful than that who created him. Frankenstein states, “As the minuteness of the parts formed a great hindrance to my speed, I resolved, contrary to my first intention, to make the being of a gigantic stature; that is to say, about eight feet in height, and proportionally large” (Shelley 58). The monster’s huge body reflects the tremendous population of the working class, which far outnumbers the few aristocrats, and in the case of the monster, his strength and power outdoes that of Victors. The Monster is more power than Frankenstein, just like the proletariat is stronger than the bourgeoisie. The monster reminds his creator, “thou hast made me more powerful than thyself; my height is superior to thine; my joints more supple” (93). On another note, the monster’s simple lifestyle reflects the lifestyle of the working class; he does not desire the same luxuries that the upper class lusts after. The monster only desires that of a small amount of nutritious food to eat and a simple bed. Just enough to survive. In conclusion, the total composition of the monster is reminiscent of of the laborers who were composed of many different types of people, larger in numbers, physically stronger, and less dependent on luxury than the upper classes. For Karl Marx one of the most important things was to create an ideal society where everyone possessed equal rights and equal property, not one where in upper class of small numbers ruled over the majority who were stuck in the lower class. Frankenstein wanted something similar, instead of trying to create the ideal society, he tried to create the ideal human being. A human being with no flaws, perfect in mind and body, “His limbs were inproportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great God!” (Shelley 58) For both Marx and Frankenstein, it didn’t work out perfectly. Although the base idea for both Frankenstein and Marx could be seen as one almost brilliant, the outcome was this far away as possible. The monster turned out to be incredibly flawed, ugly in many ways, and yet possessing good characteristics, but yet some more foul, “His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness…” (Shelley 58) For Marx communism didn’t work the way it was intended either, people took advantage of the system creating the exact system that they were trying to stop being oppressed by. Those higher up who governed communistic society within a country ended up having more power, more possessions and more property, the exact opposite of what marks wanted. For both Marx and Frankenstein, their ideal turned out to be almost exactly the opposite of what they wanted, what  they believed they could do for the world and for society.Frankenstein loses control of his own creation, much like Marx argued that an oppressive society would succumb to the demands of a revolting lower class. Frankenstein, being seen as the oppressor, when faced with the true power of the lower-class and their struggle for equality, must give in, cannot possibly win. After being rejected by the family in the cottage, The Monster swears vengeance upon mankind, “…no longer restrained by the fear of discovery, I gave vent to my anguish in fearful howlings. I was like a wild beast that had broken the toils, destroying the objects that obstructed me and ranging through the wood with a staglike swiftness.” (Shelley 162) In Marxism it is argued that oppressive society and large government would have to succumb to a rebellion by the lower class. The monster is a representation of the rebellion, going after the things that the “upper class” loved, in this case Victor’s family and other loved ones. This also shows the Marxist concept that the upper class aristocrats are cowardly, shown by Victor running away from his problems time and time again. Is victor continuously loses control of his own life and of the monster of the monster tries to take away the things Victor love to get through to him, it is shown that the power Victor once thought he had is nonexistent and it is slipping away faster than ever, like what happens in the rebellions, like the English rebellion which is alluded to within the book.As Frankenstein, representation of the upper class and a corrupt government, creates the Monster, or, the lower working class, he caused harm to the very innocent creation that he brought upon the world. The monster feels lost in a world where he is harmed and neglected by the very man who brought him life. The monster finally realises what cruel treatment he has been given, and rejects his creator entirely,  “Slave, I have reasoned with you, but you have proved yourself unworthy of my condescension. Remember that I have my power; you believe yourself miserable, but I can make you so wretched that the light of day will be hateful to you. You are my creator, but I am your master; – obey!” (Shelley 146). This concept is identical to one presented by Karl Marx in the Communist Manifesto, where he states that the working class will one day develop onto a rebellion that will overcome the upper class or the “creator” that uses and abuses them, and the system.  “The proletariat goes through various stages of development. At first the contest is carried on by individual laborers, then by the work people of a factory, then by the operatives of one trade, in one locality, against the individual bourgeois who directly exploits them” (Marx Manifesto 228). Marx believes, and advocates for the working class, created by the upper class, to rise up and demand what they deserve, equality and power within the world. This here is shown through the constant oppression of the monster by Frankenstein, and with the uprising the monster holds against his creator, taking the power he knows that he deserves and declaring that he will no longer be neglected and oppressed by that who created him. Frankenstein is a portrayal of the glory of marxism, and yet at the same time, the harm it can bring. The novel ends with both the death of creator and creation, and a realization that although the creator did not treat the creation with the deserved respect, it was necessary for the survival and wellbeing of both parties. The monster soon realizes that what he has done to his creator is not what he intended, and not what is right, “I have devoted my creator, theselect specimen of all that is worthy of love and admiration among men, to misery; I have pursued him even to that irremediable ruin.” (Shelley 275) This highlights a common criticism of Marxism and of Neo-Marxism in society, that a ideally flawless and equal society does not work, and that above all even in the harshness of oppression, extremist methods of rebellion cause more harm than good. What is shown by the death of Frankenstein and the suicide of The Monster though, is the Marxist view that, “What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, is its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable” (Marx “Manifesto” 233) The concept of the “fall and the victory,” is indeed in itself an oxymoron, and the terms contradict each other. While one refers to a failure, the other refers to victory. This shows that while the overthrow of an oppressive creator is a victory but also ends in a fall, or in this case, the death of both Frankenstein and the Monster, the death of the so-called “perfect society.”When analysed, Frankenstein shows Shelly’s rejection of oppressive society. Shelley not only rejects capitalism but also the ideology behind it, but yet does not deliver full support for the extremes which communism brings upon society. The monster is a symbol and a reminder to all that class oppression creates monsters and then threatens society, as well as itself.  Any society that exploits and oppresses creates opponents who are capable of overthrowing that society. For Frankenstein, his creation of his “ideal” human was also the creation of a monster who caused his life to fall to shambles, and in the end, cause endless harm to both himself, the creation, and innocent lives. 


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