Wasteland Reclamation The land which is either incapable for agricultural purpose or is not useful to its optimum potential, due to various reasons is marked as wasteland. Usually it is unused and nonproductive. India has total land area of about 328 million hectares out of which 24% is a wasteland area. Various measures have been adopted for wasteland reclamation which is as follows: 1. Afforestation 2.
Reforestation 3. Protecting soil erosion by providing ground cover. 4. Change in the agricultural practices by adopting mixed cropping and crop rotation etc. 5. Eco logical succession i.
e. natural process of development and re-development of the ecosystem. Watershed Management The collection of flood water in any area is referred to as watershed management. Afterwards when the flood water recedes, these areas are used for agricultural purposes, for wildlife habitat and aquifer recharging etc. Watershed management can be helpful in the following ways: 1. By applying farming practices at high areas such as mountains, reduces soil loss.
2. Planting the trees retains soil on the earth. 3. It preserves water to recharge the aquifers. 4. To hold the water series of small dams should be made on the streams. 5. Fish breeding can be done in the collected water.
Water Harvesting It is the method of collecting rain water and conserving it for later use. The water thus stored in tanks etc. is used for household purposes, livestock feeding, agricultural and land use etc. Rain Water Harvesting Rain water harvesting in needed to fulfill the 1. Shortage of drinking water in the arid and semi-arid areas.
2. Lack in recharging of groundwater during raining season due to blockage of recharging area due to urbanization and construction of buildings. 3. Demand of water due to growth in population. 4. Rainwater availability at no cost.
5. Lowering of ground water table in those areas where well is dried. 6. Reduce the creaking down of ground surface due to disturbance in soil water equilibrium. Consumerism It refers to the consumption of resources by the people. Due to extensive industrialization, consumerism has shown a bouncing rise. Consumerism has arisen due to the increase in population size and due to demand by this population, as our life style is dynamic and changing.
In the modern era, our needs have multiplied so consumerism of resources has also increased. Consumerism aeries with the place and maximum consumerism are found in developed countries. More consumption leads to more waste generation and more waste generation to pollution in the environment.
Diseases If the environment keeps getting polluted, the health of mankind will also be deteriorated & many diseases will affect and strike. Some of them are: a. Air borne diseases i.
Asthma, cough; due to S02 ii. Defects of nervous system; due to Pb iii. Fibrosis, emphysema; due to NO and N02 iv. Bronchitis, respiratory problems; due to suspended particulate matters. b. Water borne diseases i. Cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever; due to bacterial infections.
ii. Hepatitis; due to viral infections. iii. Amoebic dysentery; due to protozoial infections.
c. Green revolution The program started to bring revolution in the reservoir of food grain by enormous production of food grain. A brilliant personality named M.S. Swaminathan started the green revolution first, in India.