Valbjørn tools Valbjørn is using comparative studies, discussing

Valbjørn comes from a background in political science – with a special focus onthe Middle East required through a Supplementary Degree in Middle Eastern Studies. Heis concerned with democratic theory and focus on empiricism (p.25-26), towards therealist position and realist perspective on an event which was liberalist and comes fromthe bottom-up with usage of “older tools rather than invent brand new ones” (p.33). Danish political scientist- Morten Valbjørn with great solicitude, discusses in his article,how it can be useful to revisit the frst era of of post-democratization. The authoremphasizes the internal division and the diferentiation of the issue of post-democratization, illustrates to us, how democratization is being afected in the wake ofArab Spring.

He talks about authoritarianism versus liberal autocracy (p.29). It sets itselfan ambitious goal, namely, to strengthen the academic foundation of the scientifcdiscipline of political science, which will be used in the study of societies in the MiddleEast region in the period of political transformation. Considering the issues of democratization in political science, the author strictly refers topost-democratization in his text, defning as: “the need to get beyond the kind of focuson ‘what ought to be’ prominent among ‘democracy-spotters’ in parts of Middle Eastscholarship of the 1990s in favor of more attention to ‘what in fact is “.

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( Valbjørn, 2012). He argues , that post-democratization can be analyzed on several levels, but the mostimportant is the objective understanding of the political structure in society – taking intoaccount its multiple socio-political diversity. Valbjørn is engaged in fnding the bestanalytical instruments in political science concerning the way of implementing societies inthe Middle East into transformations. As a analytical tools Valbjørn is using comparativestudies, discussing the issue between the Arab Spring and the democratic transitionsinitiated in the region in 1989 (p.28-29).

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