VAAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1933575172720 NAMES

VAAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
1933575172720
NAMES: TUMISO NICOLENE
SURNAME: MATABANE
STUDENT NUMBER: 211047414
SUBJECT: OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT IV: MOD 1
SUBJECT CODE: EBOMX4A
ASSIGNMENT: MAJOR PROJECT FINAL REPORT
PROJECT TITLE: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
LECTURER: MR ADEYEMI
SUBMISSION DATE: 13 JUNE 2018

Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgements PAGEREF _Toc516742578 h 2Abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc516742579 h 2 1. INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516742580 h 3ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PAGEREF _Toc516742581 h 3DISIGNED PRODUCT PAGEREF _Toc516742582 h 4Description of industry problem PAGEREF _Toc516742583 h 53.2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT PAGEREF _Toc516742584 h 5How my product will help to solve the problem in terms of the following PAGEREF _Toc516742586 h 51.Unlike other pair of pliers, it can provide cutting features, PAGEREF _Toc516742587 h 52.Minimized costs of manufacturing the product PAGEREF _Toc516742591 h 53.Weight PAGEREF _Toc516742594 h 53.3DIMENSIONS PAGEREF _Toc516742596 h 6A COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN TERMS OF COST, QUALITY AND LIMITATIONS PAGEREF _Toc516742597 h 65.5 3D PRINTING CHANGING MANUFACTURING IN THE FUTURE PAGEREF _Toc516742599 h 155.6 WHAT I HAVE LEARNED THROUGH THIS PAGEREF _Toc516742600 h 165.7 CONCLUTION PAGEREF _Toc516742601 h 165.8 RFERENCE……………………………………………………………………………17
AcknowledgementsI would like to take this opportunity to thank and acknowledge Mr Adeyemi for his assistance through the semester in this Operational Management IV.

I thank the staff member who work at Product Lab Main campus in Vaal University of Technology Mr.Gofrey Nwanekah and Ms Sanele Nxumalo for their encouragement, advice, training and giving me the opportunity to learn how to use the apparatus.

AbbreviationsI2P – Idea 2 Product Lab
AM – Additive Manufacturing
FDM – Fused Deposit Modelling
ABS –Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
PLA –Polylastic acid
SLA- Stereo lithography
CAD – Computer Aided Design/Drawing
VUTSGSTP – Vaal University of Technology Southern Gauteng Science and Technology Park
INTRODUCTION ADDITIVE MANUFACTURINGAdditive manufacturing has been a dominating technique for making prototypes since the nineteen eighties and it’s changing in to the foremost accessible and most popular techniques for creating prototypes for consumer goods. There are other techniques used in 3D printing, however the Fused Deposition Modelling stay one amongst the powerful techniques utilised in 3D printing, and it is used wide by totally different organisations. FDM printers uses thermoplastic filament, that is heated to succeed in the melting point and extruded, layer by layer until the last, to make three dimensional object. The technology has been used for decades and it is still trusted by many people and organisations.

2. OBJECTIVES
The aim of this report is to demonstrate the design of the pliers using the most widely what we call additive manufacturing process called Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM).

Fused Deposition Modelling is an additive manufacturing technology that is used for prototyping, modelling, and production applications. The Fused Deposition Modelling is one amongst foremost common techniques used for the 3D printing. FDM works on additive principle by laying down materials in layers; a plastic-metal wire is straight from a loop and amasses material which will deliver a section. S. Scott Crump is the one who established this technology in the 1980s and was implemented in 1990. The technology that is used in the project to prototype a product, it is useful for bending, compression, cutting, and riveting flat or spherical stock of materials which are difficult to hold with fingers
DISIGNED PRODUCT3.1 PLIER
The product is pliers which defined as a hand device used to hold objects rigidly. It can turn many parts that no other tool can and this plier is especially suited for clamping onto small parts and gripping pipefitting. It can also be used when a nut or bolt head strip.

FIGURE 1: PLIER
Description of industry problem3.2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENTMost industries such as work place they face the most difficult problem when coming to their tools, resulting in damage of whatever they want to open or close as they don’t have specific plier to make their life easier.How my product will help to solve the problem in terms of the followingUnlike other pair of pliers, it can provide cutting features,For work involving cutting and skinning wires, cutting and removing pins, and other fasteners, it also be used to adjust bolts and nutsIt can apply limited torque (twisting force) without damaging the workCan be used to grip round square, flat and hexagon objects, this features make it unique to a pair of pliers which are built in one functionMinimized costs of manufacturing the productDue to less material used in the product, the product is very affordable as most pliers are manufactured through traditional foundry processes which can be very costly because most of them are manually operated, thus the pricing also includes the labor costs of manufacturing the product.This kind is manufactured through 3D manufacturing helps in minimizing the shelf cost of the product.WeightOver the years most manufacturing tools have been redesigned over and over due to their discomfort in handling, with this pliers we have made it light in weight for proper handling and portability, in industries technicians can carry it around with ease and if dropped from specific height it will not cause a big damage to whatever or whoever it falls on.DIMENSIONS:
Dimension are on my 123D software as shown more dimension like area length loop, length, areas, and volume of different parts.

A COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN TERMS OF COST, QUALITY AND LIMITATIONS4.1 Limitation
4.1.1 Fused Deposition Modelling
Difficult to print object with very fine details
Complicated shapes are hard to print, bolster structure should be worked amid the printing procedure
Initial investment for apparatus are costly
Printed item quality issues
FMD works according to specifications of the sizes of the products because some 3D printing technology can’t print materials based on the sizes.

Difficulties in evacuating bolster structures
In most cases the printed item needs to experience a completing procedure because of the perceivability of layering lines
Support may be required
More area in slices requires longer build times
Cost
The cost of printing the product utilising the Fused Deposition Modelling procedure will depend on some few factors, the time required to print out the product, the material that is going to be used to make the product. Fused Deposition Modelling normally works with building the layers of the product and the complexity of the product which is less amount of a price determinant. It is the work required to make the mass that consumes resources and this makes it more expensive to make the larger parts. The cost of manufacturing the part utilising the Fused Deposition Modelling will be determined by the size of the product to be produced.

In Fused deposition modelling there is a different when you want to print massive and little parts. For small parts the cost is less as little as not more than 650 rand compared to larger parts that is costlier. In fact, the bigger the part more price you will pay, the smaller the part, less cash you may pay. Theories shows that the 3D printing might be more conservative for assembling small capacity while conventional assembling like framing and infusion trim are more appropriate for assembling substantial parts.

QUALITY(RAW MATERIAL)

Figure 2: materials used in Fused Deposition Material
ABS plastic- The material which is broadly used thermoplastic which uses high strength and corrosion is dispute and it provides the properties at a very low cost. A part that is processed with ABS can be drilled, sanded and modified to give a very smooth finish without reducing the strength and the corrosive resistant properties of the material. This kind of material is very affordable and can be used to produce prototypes of low cost. ABS plastic materials have lots of benefits including that it resist the corrosive chemicals and high temperature. Therefore it is very easy to use or operate this material as it produces layer by layer on the 3D printing.

4.2 Stereo lithography
4.2.1 Limitations
It is fragile
The machines are expensive
The unit production, it only limited to copy only three copies
Cost
Parts printing are very costly as they charge the product your printing by its gram.

Quality
The printer print object with more details and very finer to touch

4.3 Laminated object manufacturingLimitations
Parts made from this process are not adequate when compare to stereolithographyCost
It is very cheap to print
Quality
It has high quality
The result of the design is accurate
4.4 Electro beam melting (EBM)
4.4.1 Limitations
Post cleaning is required as the type it doesn’t produce something that is clean
4.4.2 Cost
It is expensive to print when compared to ABS material(thermoplastic)
4.4.2 Quality
High quality
Has ability to print variety types of material
5. 3D printing system
There are different types of additive manufacturing processes which I named above but in my design I used Fused Deposition Modelling
5.1 How fused deposition modelling works
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Figure 3: the picture shows how the FDM works and type of material being used. Thermoplastic material is the one which is used in the picture.

3D printers running on FMD innovation makes by printing parts in layers from the base to the top by warming and expelling thermoplastic fibre. The outline underneath demonstrates how one of the 3D printers works.

How does this process print parts:
A PC model is outlined utilizing CAD programming.
The data from the product is then duplicated and deciphered by the machine.
Thermoplastic material or some other material used to print in the frame a fibre is moved into a temperature controlled expulsion heads. (1 &5)
The material is then warmed and dissolved into a fluid state.( 4)
The heads the expel and stores the material as layers onto a sheet base. (3)
The material then solidifies and overlays itself to the following layer. ( 6)
The other nozzle presses out material for bolster structure on the off chance that it is required. (2)
5.2 Phases in the Fused Deposition Modelling Process

Figure 4: Autodesk 123 D Design last versions logo
5.2.1 Pre processing
In the pre-processing there’s software that is responsible for positioning and slicing the 3D CAD file. The design has to be drawn using the computer aided drawing known as CAD, which can dictate the tool path. In the process the software calculates, and slices the parts into many layers. The path to extrude thermoplastic must be calculated accurately.

The nice thing about this software is that it is not difficult to understand it and it is more flexible.

5.2.3 Production
The process uses two materials during the 3D printing phase, one material is used to construct the part and the other one is used to construct the supporting structure of the part. The two materials enter through the extrusion head. To melt the thermoplastic material, heat is then applied to the material as it is extruded to a shape that resembles a ribbon. The support is needed to hold the product and scaffolding acts as a supporting structure and can be removed when the process is done.

Up! Mini 2 with filament case/enclosure (source: 3D printing systems)

Figure 4: Shows how products are produced using the 3D printing
Features of the printer
The up mini dimensions: 120mm X 120mm X 120mm
The up box dimension: 255mm X 205mm X 205mm
Thickness: Up! Mini : minimum 0.15mm and maximum 0.35
You can use different colours to print the product, there is white which is the one I used for my product, green, blue and pink there are shown below

Figure5: white and blue material
White- it is an inexpensive material
Blue-it is expensive material, cost + or – R16, 000 in 2013/2014) the cube, not in use currently

Figure6: green Material
Green is still in use and not that expensive
5.2.4 Post-processing
When the part has been completed, it is very important to remove the supporting structure.

Figure 7: Pre- Processing
5.3 3D Printing

Figure 8: 3D printing using Autodesk 123D
5.3.1 Cost of my design
The cost is based on what material used, for my design I used ABS material which the normal cost is R2 per gram + 15% vat
So my design was R67 rand in total
5.3.2 Challenges I came across

Figure 9: printed design
During the process of printing I came across the challenges in designing because I never had previous knowledge in CAD, the printing set-up process, the up mini 2 software had a double inserted on the printing preview as shown in the figure
Solution
Insert the STL file one at the time, avoid inserting different file or component at once which may result in double or file intercepting each other.

Re-check the printing pre-preview correctly
5.3.3 Precautions
While printing don’t open the printer, you only do that when you under supervision of I2P lab member.

Make sure you don’t touch the printer nozzle after printing is finish, as it might damage your product.

Take note that the door printer must always be closed
5.4 Uses of 3d
The 3D printing can be used to create Smartphone, car parts, medical equipment and accessories. Most of the organisations save lot of money by using the 3D printing to print the parts and it has been used for so many years. The 3D printing is a powerful and functional machine that has saved lives.

5.4.1 3D printed the organs
The 3D printing can be used to print organs of the patient from the individual cell. The 3D printing has really saved many lives of patients because patients do not necessarily need to wait for the donors. The 3D printing can be used to create the artificial scaffolds for the shape of the organ with living cells. The scaffold must first be printed then coated with the living cells. Most of the hospital are helping are now helping patients by printing the organs that they need to survive
5.4.2 3D Printing in the Automotive Industry
Automotive Industry now uses 3D printing to build the parts and they save time in prototyping the parts of the vehicle. The 3D is now used to create the prototypes of various parts in the vehicles, such as vents, brake rotors, shift knobs, and cylinder heads. Most of the vehicles are created by the use of the 3D printing in the assembly line to create parts and make necessary improvements to it. This technology is making a lot of changes and improvements in the organisations and a lot of organisations are now using the 3D printing to print the parts for the vehicles and improve them
5.5 3D PRINTING CHANGING MANUFACTURING IN THE FUTUREThe 3D printing will definitely change the manufacturing by moving from the traditional manufacturing process to the modern manufacturing process. The 3D printing is going to be used in most of the organisations in the future because is less expensive and not risky to manufacture. The technology is going to change the whole concept of manufacturing with traditional techniques because it is going to give innovative products and produce parts with high quality and good strength.

The 3D printing is going to attract most of the organisations because of the material cost savings. The 3D printing technology has the power and advantage of making the manufacturing process very precise because it does not waste material and it can actually use the minimum materials to produce parts and save a lot of money for organisations. The Technology is able to minimise the waste of materials being used and only use what is necessary and needed to save material costs.

5.6 WHAT I HAVE LEARNED THROUGH THISHow to utilize Auto work area 123D.
I now see how the FDM procedure functions, where it can be connected.
It is extremely significant to remain educated about the most recent innovation enhancements since we now live in a world that is advancing at an exceptionally disturbing rate.
It is critical to know where and how the innovation can be connected and to know the favourable circumstances, drawbacks, cost, utilizes, constraints, applications, impact to current procedures and whether it merits investigating.

5.7 CONCLUTION
The FDM 3D printing is a simple, affordable technology for printing prototypes that is widely used for various products. The technology is cost effective and it is used in various organizations for printing parts at the lowest cost. The technology is very powerful and uses materials of high strength and can be used by all organizations for printing prototypes
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Biranchi Narayan Panda, M.V.A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, Procedia materials science, (2015) P 856-863.

Biranchi Narayan Panda, M.V.A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, Procedia materials science, (2015) P 856-863.

3DPrinting.PCMag.com.Online.Availableat:http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/37077/3d-printing;. Accessed: 08/06/2016
Fabric infinity 3D Printers: Online. Available at: http://www.fabric8.co.za/c6/3D-Printers.aspx;. Accessed: 14/05/2016
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S. Hashmi, S.H. Masood, Advances in fused decomposition modelling, (2014) P 69-91.

S. Naghien, M.R Karamooz Ravari, M. Badrossamay, E Foroozmehr, M Kadkhodaei, Journal of the mechanical behaviour of biomedical material, Volume 59, (2016) P 241-250.

Xiangyuan ren, Huiping Shao, Tao Lin, Hang Zheng, Materials and Design, (2016) P 80-87.