Utilitarianism Theory of Ethics
Utilitarianism has been a topic of concern to many people around the world. According to studies, Stuart mill believed in utilitarianism ethical theory which was founded on the principle of showing the greatest happiness to the highest number of people, mill cherished happiness pursuit (Mill, 2016). Utilitarianism is a theory that believes in the actions that are morally right. Morally right actions are those that make the most of the pleasures as they reduce the pain available.
The theory of utilitarianism has believed in sacrificing one person and in the process save a thousand people (Lazari & Singer, 2017). It is because by doing so you are maximizing the whole community or the whole worlds happiness. The principle focuses on the consequences that arise from the matter, for instance, the actions that right always make the most use of the happiness amount.in this theory, it does not deliberate on the relationships that are deliberate. For example, let us take a case where there is a fire, and your son happens to exist in the fire and someone who can cure cancer also exists in the fire, using the theory of utilitarianism then you can save the person who can cure cancer because he can help many, and you will be maximizing happiness around the community. In addition, the utilitarianism theory believes that you cannot help people without considering the possible consequences. For example, mill trusts in performing a lot of charity work as in the process we are minimizing pain and maximizing pleasure.
In addition, the theory of utilitarianism believes that actions that are morally right always minimize pain and make the most use of the pleasures. In this theory, the end of the consequences justifies the means used. When an action results in pleasure then it is regarded as morally right, and when the actions are wrong then the end product is a pain. Mill has linked morality with happiness as the principles exalt molarity, in the theory of utilitarianism as in the morality murder is wrong. There are different actions in the theory of utilitarianism that are not right like the selfless act, and when one beats his wife it is wrong as the actions leave pleasure to the men who do them and leaves the wife selfless with pain (Lyons, 2015).
Utilitarianism sometimes needs us to perform morally upright actions for example when a terrorist storm your community and you can access the child of the terrorist then you can go on and withhold the child until the terrorist surrenders by torturing him (Devitt, 2016). For the theory of utilitarianism then you can pass the child through torture in order to save the whole community from the terrorist. Hover torturing a child is not morally upright the theory advocates that if the pain can cause pleasure. Pleasure is a command from the biological aspects of life but it is not a moral duty, and they give us pleasure in the process, for example, drugs and sex. Yes, they can deliver pleasure to us but in a real sense, they do not deal with ethics or morality.
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist system that determines whether the actions are wrong or right just like morality. The theory relates to murder and lying as a form wherein the fast place it is not morally right but by applying them one can save the whole community. It is a framework of morality as the approach gives the moral reasoning to come to a certain conclusion. For example, utilitarianism can pertain murder as not morally upright but when a terrorist storms an area of many people like a supermarket or an event, then it is not morally upright.
But when one has a chance to kill the terrorist just to safeguard the people who are around and avoid getting more victims from the shooting of the terrorist. The act is painful but brings pleasure to the people around (Devitt, 2016).
Lying is not morally upright, the theory of utilitarianism then can allow the element of lying just enable saving the lives of a million people. the theory finds a problem when it comes to getting to the bottom of values like the rights of the individual and justice. If justice could lead to losing the lives of many people as compared when it is not applied, then the theory disregards values. For example, when there is a patient in the hospital that needs the transplant of different parts of the body like the kidney, lungs and the heart, then there is a patient around who is wondering and has low chances of survival then the organs could be harvested from the people wondering and transplanted to help save the lives of others. The act is against the application of justice, it causes pain to the people whose body organs are harvested and transplanted to other patients. It looks like the practices of injustice but it is a form of pleasure as it is going to save the lives of millions of people (Mulgan, 2014). When for example you have to lie in order to save many people from being killed then theory advocates and allows the practice to go on. It looks very unethical and not morally upright and sometimes it may cause pain to the individual being but it brings pleasure to other lives somewhere.
There are some factors in the issue of global poverty and famine that relates to the theory of utilitarianism. The utilitarianism theory puts a lot of emphasis on the principle of being happy. When we talk about famine and global poverty then it is the opposite of the utilitarianism theory. It is because the theory does lie in the happiness and life. When there are famine and poverty globally it affects the happiness of people.
Famine causes death and hunger worldwide as the principle of utilitarianism will fight for the opportunities of the people worldwide to live a happy life. There are some factors in famine and global poverty that relate to the theory of utilitarianism and those that do not. For example, famine can lead to bad habits to enhance the body biological processes, for example, famine and the global poverty may lead to stealing in order for someone to get food. The factors are considered to be valid by the theory of utilitarianism because one cannot die of hunger when he or she can access to food illegally. However, there are some factors in the issue of famine and global poverty that do not relate to the principle of utilitarianism. The theory advocates for the happiness of the people but famine and poverty does not enhance the happiness of people contradicting the theory of utilitarianism (Bossert, 2017).
In conclusion, my perception of the famine and global poverty is more like the ethical principle of utilitarianism. Famine and poverty affect the happiness of people around the globe. There are some factors that the theory of utilitarianism advocates like getting food illegally to be happy and save lives yet it is an aspect of injustice and not morally upright. However, the theory of deontology by Kant contradicts to the theory of mill utilitarianism. He believes that when making decisions then our morals should guide us, and it is contrary to want the theory of utilitarianism where one is even allowed to commit murder in order to save the lives of other people.
Bossert, W. (2017). Anonymous welfarism, critical-level principles, and the repugnant and sadistic conclusions.
de Lazari-Radek, K., & Singer, P. (2017). Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
Devitt, B. M. (2016). Fundamental ethical principles in sports medicine. Clinics in sports medicine, 35(2), 195-204.
Lyons, D. (2015). Utilitarianism. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1-4.
Mill, J. S. (2016). Utilitarianism. In Seven Masterpieces of Philosophy (pp. 337-383). Routledge.
Mulgan, T. (2014). Understanding utilitarianism. Routledge.