Using academic motivation and achievement. Self- efficacy

Using social cognitive theory as a framework, teachers can work to improve their students’ emotional states and to correct their faulty self- beliefs and habits of thinking (personal factors), improve their academic skills and self- regulatory practices (behavior), and alter the school and classroom structures that may work to undermine student success (environmental factors), Pajares (2002, p.1).

Studies in the second area have investigated the relationship among efficacy beliefs related psychological constructs and academic motivation and achievement. Self- efficacy has been prominent in studies that have explored its relationship with problem solving (Bouffard- Bouchard, 1990, Larson, Piersel, Imao ; Allen, 1990), self-regulation (Bandura, 1991 Shunk, 1982 a), and strategy training (Schunk ; Cox, 1985). Math self- efficacy had been shown to be as strong predictor of mathematical problem- solving capability as general mental ability (Pajares ; Kranzler 1995),Motivation can be defined as the reason that moves people to strive for what they desire, or the willingness to do something to achieve their goals. Hence, motivation explains the magnitude and direction of people’s behavior (Keller, 2010). Gilbert (2016) observes that utility and mastery-approach goals are types of motivation related to the more cognitive-engaging mathematical tasks. Interest is sometimes equated with intrinsic motivation in mathematics studies. Intrinsic motivation is the inclination to do things for the sake of the activity itself, which is interesting or enjoyable as (Ryan and Deci, 2000).

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Denhardt (2008) argued that motivation is not directly observable. Motivation is an internal state that causes people to behave in a particular way to accomplish particular goals and purposes. Motivation is not directly controllable: motivation is not something that people do to others and motivation occurs within people’s minds and hearts. Motivation is not the same as satisfaction: satisfaction is past oriented, whereas motivation is future oriented (Denhardt 2008).”Motivation is the basic drive for all of our actions” (Ambedkar (2012, p. 1) and includes needs, desires and ambitions.

It is “the driving force behind all the actions of an individual. Teachers to motivate their students to learn, teachers have to understand: -What student’s beliefs about themselves are? What their beliefs about their abilities are? What they care about and the influential factors that will encourage them to keep working for success. So students are more motivated to get involved with activities or tasks where changes are perceived as possible. Therefore, the teacher or instructional designer should stimulate students’ motivation to learn by making them perceive effort as an unstable construct which is amenable (willing) to change.


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