UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABADInstitute of Rural Development and Agri. Extension (Synopsis for M.Phil Education)TITLE: Analysis of psychological barriers towards learning among female student at secondary school level in Tehsil Nankana Sahib Name of Student : Asia MaqsoodRegistration No : 2016-ag-5784 ABSTRACTEducation is compulsory for everyone in the society. It plays a vital role in human capital formation. It deals with all areas of academics e.g. economics, management, philosophy, sociology, religious study and psychology. Psychology has great value in Education. Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study area will be learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The main focus of this research is to investigate those psychological factors which affect student’s academic performance and are barriers in learning. The research will be conducted in tehsi Nankana Sahib. Four girls secondary schools will be selected by using convenient sampling. From each school 35 students of 9th and 10th class will be selectedThe study will be helpful for curriculum experts, teachers, policy makers, and parents of the students.UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABADInstitute of Rural Development and Agri. Extension (Synopsis for M.PhilEducation)TITLE: Analysis of psychological barriers towards learning among female students at secondary school level in Tehsil Nankana Sahib Date of Admission : 9-9-2016Date of Initiation : After approvalProbable Duration : 6 MonthsPersonal:Name of Student : Asia MaqsoodRegistration No. : 2016-ag-5784 Name of Supervisor : Dr. Babar ShahbazSupervisory Committee: Dr. Babar Shahbaz : SupervisorDr. Ijaz Ashraf : Member Dr.M. Iftikhar : MemberIntroduction”Acquiring of knowledge is obligatory to every Muslim male and female.”In this Hadith education is made compulsory for everyone in the society. Education plays a vital role in human capital formation. It delivers to youth the accumulated knowledge of past generations in organized and proper form, so that future generations can start off with all their capacities acquired by their predecessors.”Psychological barrier to learning is consist of issues of female students at secondary level .They are facing a lot of issues in gaining their education some are financial, some are others. Education is multidimensional subject. It deals with all areas of academics e.g. economics, management, philosophy, sociology, religious study and psychology.Psychology has great value in Education. It directs Education to their destiny.Psychology is a vast field to discuss but I’ll discuss only the aspect related to education at secondary level.The main focus of this research is to investigate those psychological factors which affect student’s performance and are barriers in learning.1.1 PsychologyThe word psychology is derived from Greek roots meaning study of the psyche, or soul.In 1890, William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions”.It is the branch of metaphysics that studies the soul, the mind, and the relationship of life and mind to the functions of the body.(American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language)”The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context”.”The mental characteristics or attitude of a person or group”. ( By Christian Nordqvist)”The science of the mind or of mental states and processes”. ( By Christian Nordqvist)Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationship, including family relationship and other areas.1.2. Educational psychologyEducational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.( Snowman, 1997)Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education, classroom management, and student motivation. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks.Educational psychology has seen rapid growth and development as a profession in the last twenty years.School psychology began with the concept of intelligence testing leading to provisions for special education students, who could not follow the regular classroom curriculum in the early part of the 20th century. However, &school psychology& itself has built a fairly new profession based upon the practices and theories of several psychologists among many different fields. Educational psychologists are working side by side with psychiatrists, social workers, teachers, speech and language therapists, and counselors in attempt to understand the questions being raised when combining behavioral, cognitive, and social psychology in the classroom setting.( Farrell, 2010)Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms &educational psychology& and &school psychology& are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities.1.3. Statement of the problemThe main focus of this research is to investigate those psychological factors which affect negatively on student’s academic performance and put barriers in learning. Therefore, the present study will investigate “psychological barriers to learning towards students in public or private sector at primary level.1.4. Objectives of the studyThis study will intend to achieve the following objectives:To find out the psychological problems in female student at secondary level.To identify the effects of these psychological factors on their academic achievements.To determine the factors which are responsible for developing these psychological problems.To describe mental processes and behavior of students at secondary level.To give suggestion to minimize the infacts of psychological barrier in students at secondary level.This study will be helpful to improve student’s performance and use of the teaching methodology. It is also helpful to diagnose the problems of students at primary level. Through this a Teacher make improvements in their behavior which really helpful to student toward learning.2. Review of Literature:A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and do not report new or original experimental work.It is very necessary to pay attention to the psychological aspects of a child. In developing countries like Pakistan class size is a serious problem which don’t let the teacher to express their skills and efficiencies in teaching fieldsmore over our teachers are leess trained in their profession only bed and med training programs can’t fulfill the challenges which or education system bearing. Untrained teachers fail to produce desired changes in the personality of students while trained and active teachers can make their students the cream of nation.(Rogoff,et.al, 2003)School, colleges and universities have no worth without student. Students are most essential asset for any educational institute. The social and economic development of the country is directly linked with student academic performance. The students’ performance (academic achievement) plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leader and manpower for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development. (Ali et.al, 2009)Student academic performance measurement has received considerable attention in previous research, it is challenging aspects of academic literature, and science student performance are affected due to social, psychological, economic, environmental and personal factors. These factors strongly influence on the student performance, but these factors vary from person to person and country to country.From the last few years in Pakistan literacy rate and education improved and most of the instituted in Pakistan improving the educational level and produce well educated, competitive and skilled person, those meet dynamic growing market requirement. That’s a reason the researcher find out such factors that effecting student performance, especially in rural areas where student face lot of problem.The students face a lot of problems in developing positive study attitudes and study habits. Guidance is of the factor through which a student can improve his study attitudes and study habits and is directly proportional to academic achievement. The students who are properly guided by their parents have performed well in the exams.(Ali et.al, 2009)The school is organized in a level system through which students advance as they meet their individualized behavioral and academic goals, which they help set for themselves. In addition, Lane School uses a system of rewards for positive behavior, and involves parents and community agencies to a high degree to help ensure that the needs of each student have been met.(Quinn,et.al, 1998)It is observed that international migration is a growing phenomenon and has got considerable attention. It has profound effects on the source countries. In the present study, an effort has been made to identify the possible impact of migration on families left behind, with special focus on children’s education and females. Migration of labor mobility affects the education of the family members in many ways i.e. remittance enables the migrant families to spend more amount on education, many problems faced by the wives of migrant left behind regarding the education of their children and work load. In-depth interviews were conducted from the respondents for the collection of data. The preliminary findings of the study show that emigration has left deep social economic impacts on life standards of families left behind in Pakistan.( Thomas,et.al. 2003)In a society where usually men do all outside work and women are supposed to manage only the household jobs, the responsibilities in terms of doing things independently is something which is not familiar to the women. However difficult the task may be, getting it done by both husband and wife, who enjoy the success or accept the failure together and be a source of support and console to each other is the beauty of married life, something which is missing from these separated couples. Migration of the spouse to faraway places for some years puts the women in a perplexed and alien condition where they need lots of supports and help from the families and society. In many cases the women find it difficult to get adjusted to such a condition where they will have to struggle a lot not only physically but also psychologically. It is evident from the findings of the study that economic remittances from their working abroad fathers are enabling the children to have better education as a majority of them are studying in private English medium schools. Due to the absence of their fathers at home, children have become self-reliant, independent and courageous. At the same time, children do feel less confident, insecure, lonely and over and less protected. A majority of the children feel that their families are incomplete and their mothers are overprotective towards them. They feel very happy when their fathers come back home. Most of the children communicate with their fathers through telephone and internet etc. (Alcaraz,et.al.2012).Significance of the StudyThis research will reveal many hidden factors in individual’s personality which may harm his performance not only in education field but also in daily life. So it is very essential to positively develop and nourish these psychological aspects therefore an individual’s life turn in to a balance life. The study will helpful for curriculum experts, teachers, policy makers, and parents of the students. Itwill help the curriculum experts to design books according to interest, age, mental, and physical level of the students. It will also helpful to policy makers to conduct special training programs for teachers on child psychology and developmental psychology in order to provide better understanding of student’s psychology.This study will also helpful for teachers to improve their teaching methodology according to the demand of the students. So the every students of the class can take benefit according to their personality and mental level.Parents will use the outcomes of the study to solve the student’s problems related to home e.g. family stress, family illness, financial problems and they give them positive feedback and to look after them. It will also create awareness among student’s about their rights and responsibilities’ to achieve quality education. Students should raise their self-esteem confidence, self-concept, and self efficiency and incorporate to others.3. Research Methodology:This study will focus to investigate the psychological barrier of female students to learning at secondary school level through proper method of research. This section consist will be description of population, sample, questionnaire the details of method which will be used to collect the data and method of analysis of data.3.1. PopulationThe population of present study will be female students of secondary classes in rural area of Tehsil Nankana sahib.3.2. SamplingThe teachers, students and parents will be selected randomly from the secondary schools of tehsil Nankana Sahib. Five girls schools will be selected conveniently and from each school 25 secondary level girls students will be selected through simple rendom sampling.3.3. Tools of researchThe researcher will use psychological test for students, and a self-developed interview.A psychological test is “an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior”. The term sample of behavior refers to an individual’s performance on task that has usually been prescribed beforehand.The samples of behavior that make up a paper-and-pencil test, the most common type of test, are a series of items. Performance on these items produces a test score. A score on a well-constructed test is believed to reflect a psychological construct such as achievement in a school subject, cognitive ability, aptitude, emotional functioning, personality etc.Differences in test scores are thought to reflect individual differences in the construct the test is supposed to measure. The technical term for the science behind psychological testing a psychometrics.These are some types of psychological tests.Child behavior check list bring.Youth self reportAttitude testsPersonality testsObjective testsProjective tests(free response measure)Direct observation testInterest testsAptitude testsThe researcher will use these test according to the need of the study. Along with the researcher will also conduct semi structured interviews to primary teachers to know their point of view.3.4. Data collectionData will be collected by the researcher personally.3.5. Data analysisData will be analyzed by using the computer software SPSS. The statistical technique of Mean, Standard Deviation, and other tests will be used.