Unit of parsing one’s trade to generation

Unit III
Critical Examination of Terminology and notions associated with child centered Education.
In the Pre-Industrialization period of man’s history, life was simple. It aimed at fitting men for a purposeful and happy life. But with the start of Industrialization society became complex. The social custom of parsing one’s trade to generation gradually died out. A greater choice of ‘Experience’ were made available. The aim of Education became more diffused. Formal Education, from being a true reflection of society’s need and aspirations, became more isolated from community life.
Natural abilities of child here being supervised as they were forced to choose the vocation and becoming self centered. As a result, what was being taught became more important than those who learnt it. The child receded into background. His interests and desires were ignored. Spare the rod and spoil the child’s like saying was probably originated during this period.
But gradually, due to the efforts of great men like Luther, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbert, Dewey and numerous others things were changed. Questions arose like: Whom do we educate? For whom do we construct and maintain school? What is Education aimed at? Whose development in meaningful and desirable ways is desired through education? The answer to these questions was repeatedly—”The Child” It is the child we educate. It is he whom we want to develop in desirable ways. Thus, it is not the child on whom the focus of the entire educational program is? Which is the most important factor in Education?
Thus, the focus gradually shifted from context dominated and teachers centered education since all children have a right to education that helps them grow and develop to their fullest. Moreover every child is a unique and special individual and should be given consideration. Their ideas preferences learning styles and interests are given place in planning and implementation of instructional practices.
Child Centered Education has been an important foundation of early childhood education since the time of Froebel. A Child Centered Education was given by Maria Montessori in (1870-1954). She emphasized on auto education in which the child learns by himself without any interference from the teacher. She advocated:
* Unrestrained freedom of the child.
* True learning takes place spontaneously if the sense organs are properly trained.
* Montessori method of teaching is chiefly based on sense organs training.
Basic education system given by Gandhiji and Tagore’s school at Shanti Niketan are two examples in this duration.
Basic Education
A Basic craft like weaving, spinning carpentry or agriculture was made the chief ingredient of the child’s course of study. Besides activity strong emphasis was laid on social unity and the environment around the child which was founded on a spirit of co-operation, fellow feeling and self reliance. Engagement on a useful activity served to discipline the child’s mind and body and drew out the best in him.
A re-emphasis on child centered Education is occurring as society in general is becoming more interested in the holistic development of child. Not only the Academic development of the child but healthy life style is also important. Concern for the welfare of children in all areas of their growth and development is evident.
All great educators have believed in the basic goodness of children, the teacher is to provide the environment for this goodness to manifest itself. A central theme of Luther, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Montessori and Dewey is that we must do our work as educators well and we must really give important to the needs of children.
Earlier the children were given Education of 3R’s. Jean Jacques Rousseau, the Great Philosopher began to advocate that educators must be follow nature. But the ideas gained much popularly when American social scientist John Dewey emphasised on ‘Learning by Doing’.
Child Centered Education puts children at the centre of the education process. Here the teacher is like a facilitator not an instructor or director children are active participants children’s view is considered important in planning.
As here the child is considered at unique, important individual and the teacher’s approach is more flexible. Teaching is less important as the learning is at top. It can be said that child centered education would:
a) Meet the needs of individual and acknowledge their ideas.
b) Adult take care of interest of child and family background.
c) Educate the whole child including its mind, body, heart and hands.
d) Potentials of the child are considered well.
e) Value of tolerance is inculcated well in the child.
f) Safe learning environment is provided.
g) Opportunities are given to children for free expression.
h) Such an environment is provided where the children are happy to attend it willingly.
Rabindar Nath Tagore’s Educational concepts were freedom of activity and expression and direct communion with nature.
There Educationists contributed towards the establishment of child centered education. In today’s context, the chief characteristics of child centered education may be summarised as follows:
1. Child is the most important factor in education.
2. Curriculum should be activity based.
3. Natural development of the child required freedom.
4. Learning is based on real experiences in the child’s life. Education is related to higher experiences on society—socialization of the child is essential to get him/her a place in the society.
5. Child should be made socially conscious so that she can discipline himself internally.
6. According to child centered approach we can develop all aspects of child’s personality physical, emotional, social and intellectual.
7. For good learning child should be given positive reinforcement.
8. Child centered approach emphasizes on the good pupil. Teacher relationship cooperation rather than competition is emphasized. When we organize group activities, children learn more.
9. Education is identified with life. It aims at helping the child to lead a happy and meaningful life.
SCL (Student Centered Learning)
Transferring knowledge from Teachers to Students.
SCL is an instructional approach where the students influence the content, activities, materials and pace of learning. Students are kept in the center of learning process. Teacher facilitates the learner by giving them the opportunities to learn independently. Required skills are provided them and it is expected from the students that they solve themselves for it students are involved in role playing, using self paced, simulated and co-operative learning techniques. This way students’ critical and analytical thinking is developed.
This type of learning make the students enable to transfer learning from theory to real life situations. Since children develop at different rates, they may be working at different levels in classroom. But when they learn while playing and exploring themselves, results are better.
Moreover solving real life problems requires a creative union of skills and knowledge from many disciplines our curriculum uses projects, built around students’ interests to teach academic skills and knowledge. All disciplines are integrated in school work just as they are in the real world.
These characteristics represent the new interpretation of education and its role in the child’s life. Child centric education today exists in various forms in schools all over the world. Individualized instructions, project method, heuristic method, play way method and other related methods of learning are but expressions of child centered education.
For any Endeavour to be a success, it is the individuals who count education aims at the development of these individuals through child centered education. To make it a success we must remember that the child is most sacred thing in education.

Unit III
Topic 2
Critical understanding of standardised pedagogic method:
a) Concept formation
b) Enquiry based learning
c) Project based learning
Unit III
Topic 2
Critical understanding of standardised pedagogic method:
a) Concept formation
* Meaning
* Definition
* Attributes
* Steps
* Types
* Role of Teacher
Unit III
Topic 2 (Critical understanding of Standarised Pedagogical Method)
Part (a)
Concept Formation
Meaning of Concept
A Concept is the basic unit of all types of learning. Human beings from infancy to old age, learn new concepts and use old concepts in new situations of their daily life, individuals differ in their level of concepts formation on the basis of their age, intelligence and experience. What distinguishes man from animal is the ability to form concepts. He not only retains mental pictures of concrete objects and experiences but also builds on their basis general ideas denoting classes of objects. These are called concepts. After having seen a number of horses child tend to form a general notion about their common qualities, characteristics and relations. This is a concept or idea of a horse in general. When we use words like ‘horse’, ‘man’, ‘soldier’, we mean the cluster of qualities, which is common to all horses, men and soldiers.
The basis of concepts is perception. The several perceptions are compared, their common quantities are emphasized and abstracted and a general idea, which does not correspond to any one subject but is the cumulative result of many, is formed. Concepts are a result of companion, relation, abstraction and generalization. The wider the experience the richer the concepts. A child sees a person in a uniform with a gun, sword, military hat and belt and is told that the man is a soldier. Next, he meets a cavalry man as artillery man or a foreign soldier that despite apparent differences they all are soldiers. He begins to recognise the essential and later when we sees pictures of soldiers from other countries, he calls them soldiers. The general idea of a soldier which does not correspond to any one particular individual is a concept and the mental activity through which it is obtained is called ‘conception’.
Concepts make for mental economy through organization. This gives us the power to think of the many into one. They help to organize separate isolated facts of experience and knowledge.
Concept Formation
The third step in the acquisition of knowledge after first two steps of sensation and perception, is concept. Generalization and differentiation play an important role in concept formation. The child’s concepts often short a crude generality which has to be overcome by taking a note of differences. Each child generalizes and differentiates and forms concepts. This is a permanent step because permanent marks or engrams are generated only after the formation of a concept. Percept is the product of our previous impressions. The process of knowledge does not achieve completion or perfection till our new experiences enter into permanent relationship with our past experiences. Keeping this hypothesis in mind, Herbert suggested sequence of five steps. Besides, there is a need for the teacher to protect and preserve the previous knowledge of students for the same reason if a subject is not brought into relationship with a child’s past knowledge, sensation and perception cannot combine together to create fresh healthy concept. A concept originates in perception and both concept and perception are forms of cognitive experience. In perception, there is awareness of an object. A table is concrete perception whereas the thought of a table is concept.
Definition of Concept
According to Woodworth, “An important tool of thinking is the concept.”
In the words of Munn, M.L., “Concepts are products of reasoning and once developed play an important role in thinking.”
According to Hammerton, “Concept is the process of discrimination of the common features and relation in the world of events, things and persons.”
We may say that “Concepts are patterns, schemes or mental categories which enable us to interpret the objects of our thought, whether perceptual or imaginative and they are to be thought of as active cognitive dispositions which direct and govern our apprehensions.”
We can say that meaning of a word is, therefore, societally standardized concept and when we say what a word stands for or name a concept it is understood that we are speaking of concepts that are shared among members of a community. Different communities may have different concepts of the same word. Every concept has some attributes.
Attributes of Concepts
1. Learnability: There is great difference in learnability of concepts in the sense that some concepts are easily learned than others by individuals who share similar cultural experiences and language. For example, concepts which have readily perceptive instances as cat, dog, cow and tree are more readily learned than the concepts without perceptible instances as atom and eternity.
2. Usability: Concepts vary in their use in day-to-day life. Some concepts are used more than others in understanding and forming principles and solving problems as for instance, mathematical concepts of numbers and set are used more than the concepts of ratio and proportion.
3. Validity: A concept is valid to the extent that experts agree on its meaning and definition. Some concepts which have been well defined according to taxonomic systems within physics, chemistry and botany, have greater validity than. So many concepts in the behavioural sciences which have not yet been well defined and standarized.
4. Generality: Some concepts are arranged in hierarchical order of taxonomic system, which the same taxonomy the higher the concepts, the more general it is in terms of the number of subclasses or subordinates concepts in includes. Concepts higher in the taxonomy have fewer defining attributes than those lower in the taxonomy, since differentiation among sub-classes is made in terms of one or more attributes that are not used in defining the higher concepts. Living things are highly general concepts.
5. Power: The attribute of power of a concept refers to the extent to which a particular concept facilitates or is essential to the attainment of other concepts.
6. Structure: Any public concept defined in terms of attributes has a structure, a relatedness of defining attributes.
7. Instances of Perceptibility: Concepts vary according to the extent to which their instances can be sensed. As the age increases, individual can identify the less obvious attributes of concepts instances, and can learn more through manipulating objects and seeing them. In addition we can learn about them through symbolic representation, especially verbal experiences. The number of instances ranges from one to infinite number.
Steps in Concept Formation
i. Observation: It is necessary to observe something before a concept relating to it can be formed.
ii. Analysis: After observation, it is necessary to analyze cause and effect.
iii. Comparison: After completing an analysis, it becomes necessary to make comparison on this aspect, Drever and Collins have stated that placing objects side by side in respect of their qualities and forms in what constitutes comparison.
iv. Abstraction: Abstraction means observation of similarities between different objects.
v. Generalization: After performing abstractions the results obtained are given the form and a principle.
vi. Labeling: The principle derived from the proceeding steps is given a name.
The formation of a concept is the final stage of the mental process which starts when a sensation is received.
In a concept the entire mental process presents itself to our mind as a completed, final and ideal shape. Generalization and discrimination are very important elements in the formation of concepts. In this process, it is very desirable for every individual to avoid errors or formation of stereotypes as far as possible.
Types of Concepts
* Conjunctive: A Conjunctive concept is defined by the joint presence of the appropriate value of several attributes.
* Disjunctive Concept: Disjunctive concept is on the other hand involves a critical combination of critical attributes on any constituent thereof.
* Relational Concept: Relational concept involves the notion of a common relation among the various elements of attribute values defining the concept.
Role of a Teacher
Concepts of the child starts from first year of life. When we ask the child shoe me your hand? Where is your mother? She will point out. All depends on child’s exposure, experiences, intelligence and language ability. The early experiences are very important because the cognitive development in later life are influenced by early life experiences, observation, imitation and conversation with the elder ones help the child to form concrete concept.
Teacher has to sharpen the already formed vague concepts by child. Direct experiences given by the teacher are more effective. The objects which cannot be brought into the classroom, can be taught with the help of teaching aids or by taking the children to the event/object itself. For example, teacher can take the children to post office for to see its working or to taking to zoo to see the lion etc.
New Concepts should be associated with the older ones for more clarify. Teacher must encourage the children to form their own concepts. Then they can be asked to verbalize the concepts and define them.
Unit III
Topic 2
Inquiry Based Learning (Part B)
Students have a natural motivation to inquiry. They are explorer by nature. They are energetic adventures. They enjoy inquiry exploration and adventure to satisfy their curiosity. During the process they develop inquiry skills vicariously. But it is now believed that through systematic inquiry these skills can be improved. J. Richard Suchman (1962) developed an Inquiry Training Model for developing scientific inquiry training skills in the pupils. He was of the view point that human being is curious by nature and eager to learn new things. All of us inquire when we are confronted with a problem or puzzle. Students learn better when they engage themselves in inquiry. He put forward his ideas that self learning can be systematised and expedited if students are helped and trained into a scientific process of inquiry co-operative inquiry helps students to learn about the tentative and emergent nature of knowledge and to appreciate alternative explanations.
Goals of Inquiry Training Model
* Focus
* Syntax
* Principles of Reaction
* Social System
* Support System
* Application
* Instructional and Nurturant effect
In fact, Inquiry based learning starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator. Inquiries will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions. Inquiry based learning includes problem based learning and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research. The Inquiry based instruction is principally very closely related to the thinking and its development.
Inquiry Based Learning
Inquiry Training Model was developed by Richard Suchman (1962) for developing scientific inquiry, training skills in the pupils. He had a particular system of belief which forms the basic philosophy of the model.
Basic Assumptions:
1. All knowledge is tentative. A scientific generates a theory or principle. After sometime it may be pushed and by a new one.
2. There is no one answer, we can always be more sophisticated in our expectations and most problems are amenable to several equally plausible explanations.
3. We are basically curious and eager to learn new things. All of us inquire when we are confronted with a problems or puzzle.
4. Students learn better when they actively participate.
Inquiry Based Learning
Inquiry Based Learning is primarily a pedagogical method, developed during the discovery learning moment of 1960’s as a response to traditional forms of instruction where people were required to memorize information from instructional material. The philosophy of Inquiry Based Learning finds its antecedents in Constructive Learning theories, such as the work of Piaget, Dewey and Vygotsky among others and can be considered a constructivist philosophy.
Inquiry Based Learning is a complex process where students formulate questions, investigate to find answers build new understanding, meaning and knowledge and then communicate their learning to others.
Dictionary meaning of ‘Inquiry’ is seeking knowledge, information or truth through questioning. All the people carry on with this process throughout their life even if you might find it not very reflecting. For example, infants use inquiry to build their sense of the world, the babies turn towards voices, put things and observe faces that come near. The inquiry process is mainly the gathering of data and information and applying them to senses like smelling, testing, touching, hearing and seeing.
Enquiry learning is a learner centered approach that emphasizes higher order thinking skills. It may take several forms including analysis, problem solving, discovery and creative activities both in the classroom and the community.
The power of an Inquiry Based Approach to teaching and learning is its potential to increase intellectual engagement and faster deep understanding through the development of a hands on minds on and research based disposition towards teaching and learning.
Inquiry involves learners:
* Taking real world question, issues and controversies
* Developing questioning and communication skills
* Developing research aptitude
* Solving problems or creating solutions
* Collaborating deep understanding of context knowledge
* Participating in the public creation and improvement of ideas and knowledge.
It is important to remember that inquiry based learning is not a technique but a process that has the potential to increase the intellectual engagement and deep understanding of learners urges to
* Develop questioning and communication skill
* Creating situations
* Enabling them to solve problems
* Helping them create new ideas and knowledge.
Characteristics of Inquiry Based Learning
Specific learning processes that people engage in during Inquiry-learning include:
* Creating questions of their own
* Obtaining supporting evidence to answer the questions
* Explaining the evidence collected
* Connecting the explanation to the knowledge obtained from the investigate process
* Creating an argument and justification for the explanation.
Inquiry learning involves developing questions, making observations doing research to find out what information is already recorded developing methods for experiments, developing instruments for data collection, collecting, analyzing and interpreting data outlining possible explanations and creating predictions for future study.
Levels of Inquiry Based Learning
There are many different explanations for inquiry teaching and learning and the various levels of Inquiry that can exist within these contexts. The article titled. The many levels of inquiry, by Heather Banchi and Randy Bell (2008) clearly outlined four levels of Inquiry.
Level 1: Confirmation Inquiry
The teacher teaches a particular topic then develops question and a procedure that guides students through an activity where the results are already known. The method is good to reinforce concepts taught and to introduce students into learning to follow procedures, collect and record data correctly and to confirm and deeper understanding.
Level 2: Structured Inquiry
The teacher provides the initial question and an outline of the procedure. Students are to formulate explanations of their findings through evaluating and analysing the data that they collect.
Level 3: Guided Inquiry
The teacher provides only the research questions for the students. The students are responsible for designing and following their own procedures to test that question and then communicate their results and findings
Level 4: Open/True Inquiry
Students formulate their own research questions, design and follow inquiry through with a developed procedure and communicate their findings and results. This type of inquiry is often seen in science fair contexts where students derive their own investigative questions.
Steps of Inquiry Based Learning
* Ask questions
* Probe into various situations
* Conduct analysis and provide descriptions
* Communicate findings, verbally or in writing
* Think about the information and knowledge obtained.
1. Learners are in the centre of the entire process, while instruction, resources are technology are adequately organized to support them.
2. All learning activities revolve around information processing skills.
3. Instructions facilitate the learning process, but also seek to learn more about their students and the process of Inquiry based learning.
4. Emphasis should be placed in evaluating the development of information processing skills and conceptual understanding and not on the actual content of the field.
It is unfortunate that our traditional ways of teaching discourage the process of Inquiry. It makes the students less prone to asking questions as they move through their grade levels, they are just expected to listen and repeat the expected answers. This is due to lack of understanding of Inquiry Based Learning. Teachers have to understand and make the students realize that it is more than asking questions it is utilizing the information into useful knowledge. The other factors involved in it are: different levels of questions, a focus for questions, a framework for questions and a context for questions.
Through Inquiry Bases Learning, Teachers must realize that it is about how to use data into useful knowledge. It is important to know how intelligently workforce is being utilized.
A good teacher enabled the students to increase their study skills by providing different ways of viewing the world, communicating with it and successfully introducing new questions and issues of daily life and finding answers. It can be said that Inquiry Based Learning is basically teaching the students to have a greater understanding of the world they work, communicate, learn and live in.
Project Based Learning
Historical Background
Project based learning has its roots in experimental education and the philosophy of John Dewey. The method of project based learning emerged due to developments in learning theory in the past 25 years. The Buck Institute of education suggests, “Research in neuroscience and psychology has extended cognitive and behavioral models of learning which support traditional direct instruction to show that knowledge, thinking and doing and the context for learning are inextricably tied.”
As we are living in a technological and global society, this is the duty and responsibility of the teachers to prepare student to update knowledge and engage them in activities.
Project Based Learning (PBL)
Project Based Learning can be defined as, “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks.” This process can last for varying time periods and can extend over multiple content areas.
John Thomas (2000) explains that projects based learning requires, “Complex tasks, based on challenging questions or problems, that involves students in design, problem solving decision making or investigate activities, give students the opportunity to work relatively autonomously over extended periods of time and culminate in realistic products or presentations.”
PBL is considered an alternative to paper based role memorization or to teacher led classrooms. It includes depth understanding of concepts, broader knowledge base, improved communication and interpersonal/social skills, enhanced leadership skills, increased creativity and improved writing skills. Here students work together to solve real life problems.
John Dewey initially gave the idea of “learning by doing”. He opined that teacher is not to impose the ideas upon child. Blumenfeld ; Krajcik (2006) Cile studies by Marx et al, 2004 Rivet and Krajcik 2004 and William ; Linn 2003 state that research has demonstrated that students in project based learning classrooms get higher scores than students in traditional classrooms.
Basically it is knowing and doing. After getting knowledge children learn to apply in solving the problems. Here the focus is on student not on the curriculum, passion, creativity, empathy, attitude and resiliency can be learnt by a child from text book but have to acquired through experience Jean Piaget also advocated the same idea in his constructivism theory where the students ask and redefine questions, discussion and debate on ideas making plans and predictions, drawing conclusions thus communicating their ideas to others. It is in this way a real life application students learn the team spirit.
Here the students learn concepts, apply information represent knowledge in a variety of ways and learn from each other.
Methods of using PBL
Following guidelines can be useful:
1. Begin with the end in mind and plan for the end result.
2. Keep in mind the central question
3. Plan the assessment and define outcomes and assessment criteria
4. Map the project decide how to structure the project
5. Manage the process find tools and strategies for successful projects.
Teachers’ Role in PBL
PBL can be successful where the teachers support it. The teacher must explain all tasks, provide detailed directions for how to develop project and circulate within the classroom in order to answer questions and encourage students’ motivation. Teachers approach must be flexible. For assessment purpose teacher can use objective tests checklists and rubrics. Self-evaluation and pee-evaluation is also suggested.
Topic 3
Interrogating disciplinary practices and creating non-threatening learning environments.
* Relevance
* Scope
* Process
Topic 3
Non-threatening Environment
What makes a classroom environment threatening to students? As there exist individual differences. There may be various reasons. Some have fear of subject or teacher others might have peer pressure. Social background of the learner, aspirations of students himself, parents and teachers can be a cause of threat class size or damnation of some students may be a reason. Some may feel that she is the only one who is not following so what makes a classroom environment non-threatening? It can be said that a non-threatening classroom environment would be one in which each participant feels safe and force to learn within the limits of the instructor’s design for the course.”
In this issue first we will see what do we actually mean by non-threatening classrooms environment, what can be the reason, what are the dangers and what can we do to create this kind of environment.
Topic 3
The physical and social environment of a school affects the behaviour and academic achievement of the pupils.
The culture of the school/college/office contains firstly, the physical plant itself with the objects and physical settings it provides for children and secondly, the persons who make up the school personnel and the ways in which they interact. The school plant is a comprehensive term which includes buildings, grounds, school furniture other equipment and apparatus. A good school plant facilitates effective teaching learning. The individuals who make up the social system of a school act in certain roles and the school is considered to be a web of social interaction. Where structure is generally good, good teaching learning is likely to result. Thus for effective teaching learning to take place, there should be a healthy physical and social environment in a school.
Andrew Finch if Kyngbook National University did a study in 2001 and opined that creating a non-threatening learning environment must be a top priority for the teacher. In this context there arises some questions? Why some learners learn better than others? Actually success depends less on material, techniques and linguistic technique analysis and more on what goes on inside and between the people in the classroom. Sometimes affective aspects dominate the cognitive aspect in learning. This claim is supported by various psychologists. Our purpose he is to find out how “Non-threatening learning environment” can be constructed. For example anxiety, fear, stress, anger, depression, negative reactions, peer-pressure, unhealthy competition make the teaching techniques ineffective. Holistic Approach of learning also emphasize that learner should be the central point in learning process.
Research into the learning environment as an influencing factor can be traced back to Murray (1938) whole early classroom environment instrumental focused on student perceptions of actual classroom conditions. More recent studies include student perceptions of preferred learning environments and teacher perception of actual and preferred environments, the intention being to predict cognitive and affective learning outcomes from these perceptions.
Our teachers must listen to the students, what they really need. Such a student centered approach presupposes a learning environment of trust and clarity. Awareness of the need for this learning climate is generally seen as more facilitating than innovative tasks, techniques or principles. It is said that “doing the same things with a different awareness seems to make a bigger difference than doing different things with the same awareness.”
If we really want our child should become creative we will have to provide non-threatening environment. For open discussion it is essential that there should be warm and healthy interaction between the students and teachers in the classroom.
It we really want that educational goals such as concern for community, concern for others and commitment to task in hand, must be acquired by our learners then we will have to provide a suitable, congenial and non-threatening environment for it. Learners have their own interest, values, learning styles, assumptions and beliefs which can have their true shapes only when the environment is suitable. Respect, love, trust and concern for one another are essential phenomenon in the classroom.
Regarding the content material, it is important to mention that content which is taught to the students is also a major factor in shaping the classroom environment. As it is important to make sure that whatever is being presented to them is beneficial and interesting for them.
The classroom is a convenient place for students to come together. Teacher can plan activities for them in initial stages. Later on they can be left force to take initiate themselves.
Assessment on Evaluation is a source of fear for students. Alternative assessment in the form of self-assessment, peer-assessment, learning diaries, portfolios and interview are the better ways of assessing the child. Moreover, they must be motivated to see and know what have learnt?
Further to the discussion how can we create such an environment. What role does each of us play in creating a non-threatening learning environment, which factors can we control and which must we seek to understand and ameliorate idiosyncratically?
Non-threatening welcoming classroom environment some suggestions:
1. Great your students with enthusiasm.
2. Spare 3-5mts for your students share some important events and happenings.
3. Provide opportunity to them to know that they are important for you.
4. Leave them for to talk about their strength and weaknesses thus helping them to provide their personality.
5. It will build trust and acceptance in the classroom.
6. Divide them in small group, give some activities and let them learn in team spirit and co-operative learning.
7. Adhere to the golden rule, always show respect and you will get back.
8. When you put some question to the student, let him/her feel comfortable, don’t make him/her embarrase.
9. Take time to educate the class about specific disorder and disabilities.
10. Role play helps to develop empathy and support among classmates and peers.
Education becomes a meaningless Endeavour unless the education acquired has some impact on the human conditions.
Teachers training programmes need to focus on counselling skills and management of affective domain, reflecting a holistic, affective, student centered and socio-cultural view of learning, implying a radical re-appraisal of teacher/student roles, in favour of a non-threatening “workshop” learning environment, based on mutual trust and respect in which teacher is like a facilitator. Developer stress free climate peer support is essential. Promote students, social responsibility. Help learners to develop confidence, motivation and independent thinking. Focus on communicative competence. Promote Alternative Assessment. It is important to focus on what student can do—not what they can’t unconditional trust must be offered to the students.


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