TYPES OF EVIDENCE FOR HISTORICAL PROJECTS Historical evidence of projects includes artifacts, cultural strategies, and literature. A review of the results of projects in antiquity reveals evidence about how several historical projects originated and developed. The evidence takes three primary forms: 1. Artifacts—something produced by human workmanship, such as a tool, weapon, structure, or substance of archeological or historical interest. Examples include the Great Pyramids and the printing press. 2. Cultural strategies—such as found in the arts, beliefs, institutions, and other products of work and thought typical of a society at a particular time. Examples include the English Magna Carta, the U.S. Emancipation Proclamation, and the U.S. Social Security Program. 3. Literature and documents—publications and project-related documents that describe project management and how it was used. Examples include books, articles, and editorials that describe projects and the use of project management. Figure 1.1 shows the potential for overlapping fields of evidence of projects that provide a framework for assessing the historical events that led to the application of resources to work to create change. This graphic representation also shows the sources of evidence of projects and project management.