Tumor tumor suppressors by about 50 years

Tumor cells reprogram existing metabolic pathways of gainingnutrients (Choi,  2012). Cancer metabolism is one of theoldest areas studied in cancer biology, thus this fact has been known foryears. This awareness preceded the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressorsby about 50 years and these programmed changes are now an accepted hallmark ofcancer. Understanding the reasons and the mechanisms behind these alterationsfor the benefits of cancer cells is the key toward supporting the developmentof new strategies for cancer treatment (DeBerardinis and Navdeep, 2016). Relative tonormal non-transformed cells, the metabolic alterations promote acquisition andmaintenance of malignant properties. Generally, these reprogramming either helpin supporting cell viability under stressful conditions or allow cells to growwith an unlimited replicative potential (Romero-Garcia et al.

, 2011). Pathologicallyincreased level of replication, self-sustained growth signals, continualangiogenesis, resistance to anti-growth signals, metastatic tissue invasion andavoiding apoptosis: these are six typical properties that are associated withcells that have undergone malignant transformation (Kalyanaraman, 2017) Two newcharacteristics have recently been added to this list: evasion of the hostimmune destruction and reprogramming of energy metabolism with the latter beingthe subject of focus in this thesis. 

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