(c) It can arise from perceptual differences. Perceptions of reality may not be reality itself. Perceptions are individualized and selective and are restricted by our experiences leading to subjective reality.
(d) Very often people use their assumptions and imaginations in perceiving ‘reality’ when they are not able to see the whole situation clearly. (e) Our emotional feelings such as anger, fear, anxiety, frustration or happiness and eagerness tend to distort our perceptions and differences. This sometimes also leads to differences in our opinions regarding institutional goals thereby generating conflicts. (f) Often our assumption is that others see ‘reality’ the way we do. When an employee does not behave in the way the principal wants him/her to, the principal assumes that the employee is either stupid or stubborn or being difficult on purpose with an ulterior motive (g) Personal ambitions often lead to conflicts especially when a person with high ambitions is not able to put his own ambitions behind the institution’s success or benefit. (h) Similarly, in the Indian context, the ‘crab-syndrome’ works very often. As soon as one of the colleagues or a subordinate tries to progress (through legitimate means) or achieves students’ praise and goodwill, other colleagues and/or the boss feel threatened and try to block his progress.
This generates tremendous conflicts. (i) When people with different value systems try to work together, conflicts arise. Values are deeply held beliefs and determine our basic orientations towards others. We attach strong emotional feelings towards our values which get aroused when there is a clash over valves.
People find it difficult to change their values. (j) The task of teaching requires interdependence. For example, a seventh standard mathematics teacher expects that the sixth standard teacher has taught the students the fundamentals on which she can build further knowledge of mathematics. In other words, we interact with one another and hold expectations from each other concerning what others should do and what others should not do. This leads to role pressures and diverse expectations.
When these are not resolved, conflicts arise. (k) Status, power and authority of the principal can cause anger and frustration among subordinates. (l) Some people with an aggressive personality or those with a low self-esteem arc more pre-disposed towards conflict.