To Translation is not about the system, it’s

To know about the interconnected among contrastive
linguistics, translation studies and corpus-based approach, the initial important
thing to know is the definition about those. Contrastive linguistics is one of a
branch of linguistics that distinguish on similarities and differences in the
language structure of two or more kinds of languages and bring out for theoritical
or practical purposes (Bugarski.1997:77). The focuses at the different degree,
for example phonetics, syntax, and text linguistics. While translation studies,
according to Holmes in his well known paper The
Name and Nature of Translation Studies said that translation studies has
two major issues: first it used to represent the phenomena of translating and
translation and second it used to established general principles by how of
which these phenomena can be explained and predicted. Theoretical concepts in the field of
pragmatics have been introduced into Translation Studies. It can be found in the form of speech act theory, cooperative
principles, and relevance theory. So in here, contrastive linguistics is a part
of system to create a text.
While translation studies is a text, a whole text. Means that a text is consist by many elements and system to make it. A text
consists of syntax, semantics, pragmatics, discourse analysis and many more. Translation
is not about the system, it’s about the text, while contrastive linguistics is
about system.  Take one of the translation machines such as
Google Translate or Bing Translator. They are the examples of system. Those machines can’t critize what exactly the core or the aim of the text is. They just translate from source language to target
language only. They merely change the language but they rule out the aim
of the text.

Corpus-based approaches have proved to be
useful in all of these types of translation studies (applied, descriptive, and theoritical). The corpora can contribute to applied translation
studies in the three
major ways, the first of which relates to corpus-assisted translating, secondly, corpora can be used to aid
translation teaching and training, thirdly, corpora, especially aligned parallel corpora, are essential
for the development of translation technology. As Bowker (1998: 631) notes, “higher quality with respect to subject
field understanding, correct term choice and idiomatic expressions can be found with corpus-assisted translations.” Secondly, corpora can be used to support translation teaching and training, because it
can help students to develop their “awareness”, “reflectiveness” and “resourcefulness”, which are distinguish
from those unskilled amateurs translator (Bernardini 1997). Thirdly, corpora, especially aligned parallel
corpora, are essential for the development of translation technology such as
machine translation systems, and computer-supported translation tools, translation memories and
terminology banks

Corpora of different kinds can be used for
different purposes in translation studies. For example, to exploring how an idea in one language is
conveyed in another language, thus providing indirect evidence to the study of
translation processes, pararell corpora will be used. Corpora of this kind are indispensable for
building statistical or example-based machine translation systems, and for the
development of bilingual lexicons and translation memories. Also, parallel corpora are very useful tool for translators. Multilingual
comparable corpora are useful in improving the translator’s subject field
understanding and improving the quality of translation in terms of fluency,
correct term choice and idiomatic expressions in the chosen field. They can
also be used to build terminology banks. Translational corpora provide primary evidence for product-oriented
Translation Studies, and for research of translation universals. If corpora of
this kind are encoded with sociolinguistic and cultural parameters, they can
also be used to study the socio-cultural environment of translations. They can
also be used in combination with a parallel corpus to form  so-called translation evaluation corpus that
help translator trainers or critics to evaluate translations more effectively
and objectively.

Corpora have greatly benefited translation and contrastive studies. Corpus-based translation and contrastive
linguistic studies have also significantly enlarge the scope of corpus linguistic research. Meanwhile contrastive linguistics and translation
studies have traditionally been accepted as two separate disciplines within
applied linguistics, there are many contact points between both of them and with the common corpus-based approach and
the usually shared type of data (e.g. comparable and parallel corpora). Corpus-based translation and contrastive
linguistic studies have become even more closely interconnected (cf. Ramon
Garcia 2002).


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