To shown in Fig. 4. The broad

To obtain the information associated with chemical bonding in a material, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used. The band position and peaks of the material depend on chemical composition, crystalline structure, and morphology of nanomaterials 90,91. So, to quickly inaugurate the presence or absence of the various vibrational modes present in ZnO nanorods and to review the effect of cobalt doping on ZnO nanorods, many researchers performed FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature. In addition, FTIR spectroscopy is usually employed as an additional tool to detect the OH functional groups as well as other inorganic and organic species present in the samples. The characteristic FTIR transmission spectra of undoped and cobalt doped ZnO is shown in Fig.

4. The broad absorption peak at 3470 cm-1 is attributed to O-H stretching vibration of the water molecules present in ZnO lattice.92 Another intense peak at 2347 cm-1 is attributed to the absorbance of CO2 molecule in the air because measurements were done at room temperature in air ambient atmosphere.

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A small principle absorption peak around 1567 cm-1 corresponds to asymmetric stretching of a carboxyl group (C=O). A weak absorption peak appears at 1048 cm-1 because of the deformation vibration of C=O.93,94  The IR characteristic peaks below 1000 cm-1 are critical to study the presence of cobalt in ZnO lattice and their functional groups. The most intense peak at 436 cm-1 is attributed to the stretching vibration mode of Zn-O. The medium weak to sharp band appear around 538-543 cm-1 are assigned to the vibrational frequency due to the change in structural properties by the addition of cobalt into ZnO lattice.

Devi and Velu95 observed the Zn–O stretching bands at 438 cm-1  and 427 cm-1 for ZnO and cobalt-doped ZnO nanorods respectively. Gandi et al96 observed the medium to the weak band at 872 cm-1, which is assigned to the metal–oxygen vibration frequency due to the changes in the microstructural features by the addition of cobalt into the Zn–O lattice. Chitra et al. 97 also showed that with cobalt doping infrared (IR) peak shifted from 499 cm-1 to 651 cm-1. Therefore, the gradual shift of IR frequency of Zn-O and additional band appearing at around 538 cm-1 confirms the incorporation of cobalt into ZnO lattice. Ahmed et al.

98 and Kumar et al.99 also show the similar results for cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures. IR peak assignments and their band wavenumber are shown in Table 2.

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