Title: their source like ripples on a pond

Title: Which common material is best for soundproofing an area?Category: Physical ScienceExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherMuhammad Saeed640 W. Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade #7Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Background Research Page 5-7Materials and Procedure Page 8Results Page 9-10 Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11Reference List Page 9Acknowledgments For my project I would like to thank my dad for helping me set up the experiment and buying me materials. I would also like to thank my brother and cousin for helping me collect measurements.Purpose and HypothesisPurposeThe purpose of this project was to determine which material is best for soundproofing an area out of fiberglass insulation, cardboard, styrofoam, and acoustic ceiling tiles.HypothesisMy hypothesis is that if we have four materials, fiberglass insulation, cardboard, styrofoam, and acoustic ceiling tiles then the fiberglass insulator will be the best at soundproofing the sound. This is because it is more absorptive and thicker.Review of Literature Sounds are movements of the air that we can hear. Sound is produced when an object vibrates, in turn it vibrates the air and the other substances that surround the object. The vibration in the substance travels as waves. Sound waves spread out from their source like ripples on a pond but sounds move in all directions upward and downward. Most of the sound we hear travels in air. The number of waves of sound can travel in any kind of substances like liquids and solids. Sound travels faster in solids and less quickly in liquids but slowest of all in air. Sound needs a sound medium to travel. When there is no sound medium there is no sound. For example in outer space there is no sound medium therefore there is no sound. Scientists measure sound in frequency and pitch. A sound pitch depends on how many times the sound source vibrates per second, sending one sound wave each time (Parker, 2005). Sound is measured in units called Hertz (H2) One H2 is one vibration per second. Our ears hear a limited range or spectrum, of pitches. The loudness of a sound is indicated by measurements is called decibel (dB). These units actually measure a sound’s energy intensity, but this is usually similar to its overall value. The quietest sound we can hear is 10dB. When we talk it is 50 to 60 dB and a loud truck is 80dB. “Sound over 90dB can harm hearing if the sound is long pitched and longer lasting” (Tanacredi and Loret 2000). Intensity is different than loudness because the pitch determines the loudness of a sound while intensity measures the power of a sound. People have been experimenting with sound for a long time. For example, In 500 B.C. Pythagoras experimented with the sounds of vibrating strings. In 400 B.C. a Greek scholar named Archytas observed that faster motions resulted in higher pitched noises. In about 350 B.C a Greek philosopher named Aristotle suggested that we can hear sound due to the movement of the air. From then on, until 1300 A.D. all discoveries had to do with relationships with sound to music. In early 1600s Galileo demonstrated that the frequency of soundwaves had to do with their pitch. (World Book Inc., Nov. 2009) In about 1640, Marine Mercian tried to measure the speed of sound in the air. In 1660 Robert Boyle, an Irish chemist, showed that sound waves must travel in a medium In 1877 famous inventor Thomas Edison invented the first phonograph. By the early 2000’s, two significant areas of acoustics were active noise cancellation and active structural acoustic control in the simplest form of ANC, a speaker produces sound waves that interfere destructively with the waves of an unwanted sound. As a result the sound from the speaker cancels out the unwanted sound. In ASAC, a device called an actuator applies force to an object whose vibration is producing an unwanted sound. The force changes the nature of the vibration, making the resulting sound less objectionable. (World Book Inc, Nov. 2009) Noises are usually sounds that are not pleasant to ears. They can be unwanted, harsh, irritating, or just too loud. Noises can have a great affect on daily life if noises at a low volume continue for a long time it can cause headaches, a bad mood, and distraction. Long noises however can harm hearing. In situations when sound is not wanted one can simply reduce the sound waves. There are several approaches to reducing sound such as increasing distance between source and receiver of the sound, placing objects between the source and receiver to block some of the waves, and using “sound damping materials such as baffles that absorb and change the sound”(Hillesheim, 2017). Soundproofing is also used in many other ways. Curtains in a home help to reduce the sound transmitted through windows. Mufflers on cars help to reduce noise that the car engine produces. In recording studios there are special walls that are carefully soundproofed to prevent outside noises from entering by adding sound absorbing materials to the inside and outside of the wall. In our daily life we encounter noise everywhere from school, work, home, etc. But, sometime we can’t distance ourselves from the sound and can’t afford expensive soundproofing but there is a solution: simple materials. You can soundproof with materials such as acoustic tiles, fiberglass insulation, and styrofoam.  Materials that do not transmit sound easily should be used to soundproof an area. These materials may either reflect the sound or absorb and change the sound. Engineers understand need for echos to create good acoustics for an area such as fiberglass insulation. Thin fiberglass insulators are inexpensive and the insulative properties of fiberglass make it perfect soundproofing material. Then comes acoustic tiles.Acoustic tiles  are used to reduce noise and control sound in many different spaces. Finally, we have styrofoam which is good for soundproofing because it is thick enough and has good ability.Sonar is a technology that uses sound to navigate and locate nearby objects in the water. Sonar works when sound waves travel until they reach an object. Some uses for sonar are while boating sonar an help people find safe and deep paths to follow and help them locate fish in the vicinity. Sonar is used for medical purposes to diagnose an illness, and to treat one. Sonography is used to see safely in one’s body to detect problems in different organs, such as tumors. When combined with Doppler imaging, the rate and direction of moving fluids, such as blood can be evaluated. (Hillesheim, 2017) tMaterials and Procedure1 cell phone4 shoe boxes of the same size 1 decibel reader1″ styrofoam sheet to cover shoe box1″ cardboard sheet to cover shoe boxFiberglass insulation R12″ to cover shoe box1” acoustic ceiling tiles to cover shoe boxProcedureThe first step I did in my experiment was to make sure there was no other outside sound in the room. I determined the control value by recording the sound of the alarm on cell phone with a shoe box without any insulation using a decibel meter. Next, I covered each box with a different insulator. The first box with, styrofoam, second with acoustic ceiling tiles, third with cardboard, and fourth with fiberglass insulator. I put them all into a silent room and set a phone in one with a 10 second timer. Then I measured sound level outside of each box using a decibel meter and repeated ten times per box. Finally, I averaged the 10 trials out and saw which one was more soundproof.ResultsSoundproofing Ability of InsulatorsConclusion, Reflection, and Application The results proved my hypothesis correct, that fiberglass insulation R12 was the most effective soundproofing material. Fiberglass insulation R12 reduces the sound level from my control by 24.05 dB. The next best soundproof material is acoustic tiles that reduces the sound level from the controlled variable to 16.25 dB. Then comes the third best soundproof material from the list I used which is styrofoam and it was 13 dB away from controlled. Finally comes the cardboard which only reduces sound by 3dB from my control. So I concluded that soundproofing is more linked to sound absorption than bocking the sound. Fiberglass insulation has more soundproofing abilities than other materials used in experiment. In my experiment I believe that although my tests were fairly accurate and that the experiment was pretty much controlled there are a few things that might show more reliable results. First of all when I look at the readings on the decibel meter were unstable so I need to find out why that happened and how to fix it. I also would have used other materials or more materials to get best possible results. I could’ve done more readings and taken the average of that to get better results. And finally I could’ve used a different type of box such as wood because walls are usually made of that.My experiment is  been very beneficial to people looking for cheap and effective soundproofing. Fiberglass insulation is a great material for noiseproofing. With it many noise problems can be prevented and say if it is used in workplaces like construction firm , theatres, homes, and cabinets of paint mixers in store.Reference ListGardner, R. (1991). Experimenting with sound. New York: F. Watts.Infobase Learning – Login. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://online.infobaselearning.com/Knapp, B. (2014). Changing sounds. Henley-on-Thames: Atlantic Europe Pub.Tanacredi, J. T., & Loret, J. (2000). Experiment central: understanding scientific principles through projects. Volume 1, A-Ec ; Volume 2, El-L ; Volume 3, M-Sc ; Volume 4, So-Z. Detroit, MI: UXL.World book. (2003). Indianapolis, IN: World Book, Inc.

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