Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson was one of the founding fathers of the United States and was also the principal author of the Declaration of Independence.
He arranged for the Louisiana purchase and was our third president. He and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican party and also spoke out during the Enlightenment. Alexander Hamilton: Alexander Hamilton helped achieve ratification of 51 out of the 85 installments in The Federalist Papers, which today are considered the single most important reference for Constitutional Interpretation. He worked very closely with George Washington, another founding father of the United States, and led the Treasury Department. Louisiana Purchase: The Louisiana Purchase, arranged by Thomas Jefferson, was one of the biggest purchases added to the United States, almost instantly doubling it’s size. Because of this purchase it gave the United States control over the Mississippi River and the port city of New Orleans. It was signed in 1803 and gave the United States 800,000 square miles of French territory.
strict v. loose interpretationJohn Marshall: John Marshall was an American politician and the fourth chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1801. He was also largely responsible for establishing the Supreme Court’s role within federal government. He was nominated by John Adams and became the longest serving Chief Justice and fourth longest serving Justice in United States Supreme Court history. Although many of his decisions were unpopular at the time, he built up the third branch and augmented federal power in the name of the Constitution. Judicial review; Marbury v. Madison: In 1803, Marbury v Madison was a landmark which forms the basis of Judicial review in the United States under the third article of the Constitution.
This was arguably the most important case in history. Because of this, the Judicial Branch was greatly strengthened and the Federal Constitution enabled Congress to establish certain rules and procedures in the operation of the federal courts. Macon’s Bill No.
2 (1810): Macon’s Bill Number Two was a law that became a part of the United States in May of 1810 which was made motivate Great Britain and France to discontinue their seizing of the United States’ vessels whilst during the Napoleonic Wars. “War hawks”: War hawks were people who were quarrelsome, inclined to fight, belligerent. People who were war hawks wanted war and they were particularly popular around 1812, when the War of 1812 was taking place. They were fighters in the war and incredibly passionate, helping to cause their win sometimes.War 1812: The War of 1812 was a very big war that lasted for two years and was between Andrew Jackson: Andrew Jackson was the seventh United States President from 1829 to 1837.
Many of his actions as president were very debatable whether they were constitutional or not, for example when he went against supreme power to do something, and he did many new things to the US like establishing pet banks. Although he was either loved or hated, he was overall considered a “war hero” due to the final end of the War of 1812 during his rule. He also briefly ran in the Senate, representing Tennessee. Treaty of Ghent (1814): The Treaty of Ghent was very significant because it was the peace treaty that finally ended the War of 1812 on December 24th, 1814. Both the United States and the United Kingdom signed willingly on this date, after four months of having discussing.
Hartford Convention (1814): The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings in the early 1800s in which the federalist party of New England met to discuss the War of 1812 which had still been going on then. Not only was the War of 1812 discussed, but the problems considering political parties and thinking up ways to appease the tensions.Eli Whitney, interchangeable parts, cotton gin: Eli Whitney was the creator of both the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts, which were both incredibly impactful inventions on society. Whitney made interchangable parts which completely changed the system of making things, for parts were then able to be interchanged, which facilitated manufacturing and saved money in the long run as well. He also created the cotton gin, which was a new way of collecting cotton from the lands. Instead of being hand picked by slaves, the cotton gin was a tool which (although was still difficult on the slaves), did facilitate the collecting of it and made it faster.
Abolitionism: Abolitionist was the movement in which many people were opposed to slavery and therefore protested against it. These people were called abolitionists. Abolitionism was a super opposed against idea and there were so many people who were strongly against it. The movement against slavery lasted for many many years and people were typically incredibly passionate one way or another about the topic and although it was a conflict lasting for so long, the final victory of abolitionism wasn’t until the 1860s.
Even then though, changing societal norms was difficult. Sectionalism: Sectionalism is the societal movement in which a group is divided, whether it be among a country or among people themselves. It is simply the division among something that was a whole, therefore kind of making it into “sections” if you will, hence the name sectionalism. William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison was an American journalist born in 1805.
He was passionate in what he believed in and was an abolitionist, a suffragist, and a social reformer. In his newspaper, The Liberator, he called for the immediate freedom of the slaves and also for the end of political ties between the North and the South. Nat Turner (Rebellion): In 1831, due to being fed up with the segregation between the blacks and whites, Nat Turner claimed he saw a vision, and attacked multiple whites in Southampton County, Virginia.
During this, 70 blacks and 55 whites were killed. He was later caught and executed, though left a big impact on the society as he fought strongly for freedom among them.