This essay discusses three main continuities and shifts that can be discovered within the academic research studied from the 1980’s to present day. Mainly will be discussing on the term sense of place that was researched by Meyrowitz (1985), Bull (2007), Krajina (2014), basically will be discussing on the effects of electronic media affects the use of a place and space. Following this will be discussing on the on the sense of escapism with the use of media whether it is old media or even new media, which includes Hobson (1980), Radway (1987), Bull (2007).Finally, the shift in gender roles and background in media uses will be investigating the researches from Morley(1986), Ann Gray(1992) and, Wood (2009).
Basically will be writing about how media has changed our daily lives and also how some patterns from the olden days still has an effect on us in many aspects of our lives.The research studied will from the span of from the year 1985 to 2014, which is twenty- nine years, which begins with Meyrowitz in 1985 on how he differentiates the private and public spaces. Meyrowitz describes the term place is used to refer to both social position and a physical location.( Meyrowitz, 1985:308). He describes social life using the metaphor of a drama (Meyrowitz,1985:28) conceptualizing interactions and situations in terms as a performances, actors, and settings, when defining a place as a physical location he was thinking of the interactional environment of a physical presence.
(ibid). Meyrowitz that the sense of place is evolving and changing due to the presence of electronic media, place has been split into apart by electronic media, he gave the example of being at home, or in the office can be in a physical place but also because of electronics media can also be in a whole different location. Meyrowitz claims that the arrival of television and other electronic media in the households ‘libertes women’ from their ‘informational confines'(Meyrowitz,1985:224). Similarly, proposed that there is a blurring of childhood and adulthood in the now contemporary society, observing that television is now escorting children across the globe even before they can cross the street (Meyrowitz,1985:238).
Seven years later Bull continues the research of space but using automobiles, he argues that automobiles traveling through the city are slowly being domesticated. He even goes further to compare that a car to be a border in the sense of place that it can be both an inside place or an outside place (Bull,2007:87). He states that drivers are thought to become spectators through the simple act of looking out their windscreen, like watching television the drivers have entered another space where they see the world through a screen being in another place and space. But he later states that the boundary is broken by the introduction of the radio which competes with the sound of the engines and the space out the car (Bull, 2007:93).
Bull’s respondents spoke about the sense of being “surrounded or enveloped” and feeling as if “never leaving ‘home'” when using the personal stereo in urban space (2000: 24, 37).Krajina work on how people interact with urban screens on encountering them in their daily rounds.Screen technologies now make up part of everyday urban ecologies, in a burgeoning variability of scale, forms, and uses, such as fleeting mobile phone and laptop interactions, ubiquitous surveillance, digital advertising and information kiosks. My focus is on urban display screens (urban screens) which can be found in every surprising form. Owned and managed by a variety of actors (public authorities, advertisers, architects, and artists), the ways in which urban screens address pedestrians are no less diverse. (Krajina, 2014:20). Screens transiently move between the foreground and the background of attention in the routine passing through. (Krajina, 2014:21).
Krajina used the analytical tool Morley and Silverstone’s understanding of screens as “both texts and technologies” (1990: 32). Therefore, I refer to urban screens in grounded spatial terms as display media exhibited across urban surfaces, which at the same time occupy physical space and represent other symbolic space. (ibid).The other continuity is the escapism in the use of media throughout the in the span of twenty-seven years, we start off with Hobson’s, “Housewives and the Mass Media”, she discussed on how women used television and radio with their daily chores and only when they have the time for it, because they still have to provide for their children and husbands (Hobson,1991:93). She also concluded how women used television and radio as a form of “background noise” while doing daily chores at the same time not paying full attention to the programmes that they are tuning in to. As for television, she found that there is a “two world” television in the eyes of the women she interviewed. There is a separation between the consumption of radio and television, but both provide crucial elements in the experience and management of their lives.
She states that programmes which are interpreted by the women as portraying ‘everyday’ or ‘family’ life are, in fact, far from portraying anything which has a point of real identification with the women’s own lives. Other than that women listen to the radio to provide crucial relief from isolation. (ibid:97). All these programmes could be broadly termed as ‘entertaining’ rather than ‘educational and informative’. The programmes which are actively rejected the deal with what the women designate the ‘real world’ or ‘man’s world.
( ibid:98). In conjunction with the programmes which women reject, there are programmes which they choose to watch and to which they obviously relate.These can be defined as those which are related to their own lives, the programmes which can loosely be termed ‘realistic’.(Hobson, 1991: 101).As for Radway, she found that women who read romance novels tend to romanticize and wish their lives were like the characters of the books, she discovered that the readers want something that’s light because we’re trying to get away from our problems. And that’s why we read books. And we don’t like to read books and have those kinds of problems because then we’re not escaping. (Radway,1987:159).
She also found out that most of the women she insisted that their primary reason is “to escape my daily problems.” She continues stating that reading romance novels not only is it a relaxing release from the tension produced by daily problems and responsibilities, but it creates a time or space within which a woman can be entirely on her own, preoccupied with her personal needs, desires, and pleasure. It is also a means of transportation or escape to the exotic or, again, to that which is different.(ibid,p.61).
Reading to escape the present is neither a new behavior nor one peculiar to women who read romances. Romantic escape is, therefore, a temporary but literal denial of the demands women recognize as an integral part of their roles as nurturing wives and mothers (ibid,p97). Radway also the discovered that immediately after extolling their benefits as an “escape,” nearly every reader informed me that the novels teach them about faraway places and times and instruct them in the customs of other cultures (ibid,p107). So in reading romances, there is the feeling of being in another place which ties back to the first continuity in the research essay sense of place and space.Coming back to Bull, the uses of the iPod users states that when putting in the earphones to listen to music is an act of escapism for reality (Bull,2007:93), blocking out the world and just being the mood of the music. The consumption of technologically mediated sound in the 20th and 21st centuries represents an increasingly significant mode of ‘being-in-the-world’ in which the ‘self’ claims a mobile and auditory territory for itself through a specific form of ‘sensory gating’ permitting the user to screen out unwanted sounds through the creation of their own seductive soundscape.(Bull,2010:1) Bull’s analysis of personal stereo use in urban space suggests that passers-by still require “their own bubbles” (2004; 2000, 2007).
City walkers from the late 20th century onwards pursue those “bubbles” in form of an audio separation from urban stimuli sought through using personal stereo technology. As McCarthy noticed, “we can shut our eyes but we cannot avert our ears (or at least … not without the help of a portable stereo)” (2001: 110). iPod users are simultaneously connected and disconnected from the urban world that they inhabit. Connected through the use of their iPod whilst simultaneously disconnected from the physical world through which they move. In the totally mediated world of the iPod user lies the dream of unmediated experience – of direct access to the world and one’s emotions.
The toxic pleasures of iPod use resonate through our understanding of what it is to live in an urban setting historically a place that is shared with others (Bull, 2010:62). The continuity of escapism continues to grow in a different way with the ever-changing form of electronic media or even traditional media such as romance novels.Lastly, will be discussing on the shift which mainly focuses on how gender roles in using technology in the household has changed the over the years back during Morley’s time of research which is mainly male dominant watching the television and selecting programs to watch, to when Wood researched where the female was very interested started using technology in the household more often.
First of all, Morley work on the housewives.The man of the households were the ones using the television the most having control over what programs they watch as a family. Morley used Lull as a reference in his research stating puts it, ‘the locus of control in program selection processes can be explained primarily by family position'(Lull,1982:809).After a decade in Grays investigates what women themselves felt about the VCR, both in terms of the way these entertainment facilities were used within their households, and what kinds of programmes and films they themselves particularly enjoyed (Gray,1992:1). The decision to purchase or rent a VCR was mainly the prerogative of the adult male, although he often had to win the consent of his female partner for this investment. The reasons for this can be seen as a combination of the masculine address of VCR advertising, the relative freedom of male leisure time in the home, and male economic power. Many of the women, however, considered television and video to be a ‘last resort’ leisure activity. For the leisure and the opportunity to relax was identified with going out, as this provided essential distance from domestic duties and the obligations that were always present at home.
(Gray, 1992:147). Different positions within the household occupied by men and women have their effect in relation to the modality of viewing. As we saw, the male is able to switch off and view in a concentrated mode, and, as Morley’s work shows, prefers to view in this way.
Many of the women in this study viewed distractedly, often knitting or sewing while they were in front of the television and video, but there was a shift, time shifting. Because of time shifting the women had to find a time to view a programme before it disappeared.(ibid,p 150).
For these reasons some of the women were forced into watching late at night or early morning, making them use the VCR even more than usual.Years later the shift is more significant in Wood’s work in 2009, she used Morley’s research agreeing that women do talk to television, but it’s different by stating that they have more power than they did back in 1986. Wood found that there three levels of responses than women do while watching television, first of all, are the indicative of direct exchange with the television, secondly are that women started bargaining and interrogating the text themselves, finally the third level of interactions, which women “rearticulates the discussion in the terms of her own subjectivity and experiences” thus gaining the power and control over the media. (Wood,2009:170). So far there is a gradual shift in how the use of technology in the household especially by women back in the works done by Morley, Gray, and Wood.In conclusion, I have stated the two continuities and the shift that can be found. The research that was done by Meyrowitz, Bull, and Krajina on the sense of space and place can be further discussed due to its multiple layers of research.
The second pattern in continuity on the sense of escapism, where people whether by using traditional media up till the new media will always want the feeling of escapism, top escape the reality of their world.