This South Africa, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland,

This vast colonial empire was neverthelessvery complex by its long, complicated construction. We can thus determine 4different statuses, as well as the particular case of India.·      The Crown ColoniesIn the colonies of the crown, the power washeld by a Governor appointed by London, surrounded by two councils: alegislative and an executive, with advisory powers and whose members wereappointed by the Crown or by the governor. (website source: click here)·      The chartered coloniesCharted in the colonies, the administrationwas in the hands of the commercial company which had obtained management.

Themodel is of course that of the English East India Company who administered apart of India from 1615 to 1858. (website source: click here)·      The DominionsA dominion, designated an autonomous statewithin the British Empire. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, theIrish Free State, Newfoundland, India and Pakistan were dominions. The term is initiallyinvented and used, rather than kingdom, not to provoke the neighbouringcountry, the United States, which is just emerging from the American Civil War.

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(website source: click here)Canada was the first to benefit, in 1840with the Act of Union (websitesource: click here). The othersettlements followed this pattern with a certain delay, due, on the one hand,to their geographical remoteness and the weakness of their population and, onthe other hand, to that, unlike Canada, they were not close to a country likethe United States, which had a strong pull.·      The ProtectoratesThe protectorate is one of the forms ofcolonial subjection. It differs from outright colonization because the existinginstitutions, including nationality, are maintained on a formal level, theprotecting power assuming the management of diplomacy, foreign trade andpossibly the army of the protected state. (website source: click here)·      India, a special caseThe set that we used to call Raj (“kingdom”)was a complex structure. The basic distinction was between the territoriesunder direct administration and those under trusteeship (“India ofprinces”).

The first belonged to the authority of the Governor-General ofthe EIC until 1858, and then to the authority of the Viceroy appointed byLondon


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