This the process of positive change (Steib, 2004).

This practice paper will look at the case study of Parma and Vashti and their children, who have migrated to Australia. As a social worker considering their case there are some elements that need to be taken into consideration which can influence greatly on their future outcomes. This practice paper also presents an assessment model i.e. Collaborative Family Work model- RIDGES for addressing the family need, developing goal and strategies. From the given scenario, Parma and Vashti are from different social background so it can be hypothesized that they have certain cultural expectation from Darin such as household performance, obeying and following them. To add up, Darin age can be defined by Erikson fifth stage of socio-developmental i.e. identity vs role confusion, this is the stage where the person is confused about their own role such as confusion about their place in the society and own self (McLeod, 2017) which the parents may have neglect or unaware and due to which the cultural expectation of parents might not have met. Also, the hypothesis for the family conflict and individual differences can be the past experiences of parents or disruptive life events, lack of support of parents to Darin and parents economical stress. Engagement Plan Parma and Vashti has an appointment with the counsellor. The engagement plan involves enabling families to identify their own needs, establishing relationships and family member active role in the process of positive change (Steib, 2004). Firstly the main objectives is establishment of rapport, gaining clients confidence and putting them at ease for development of collaborative therapeutic relationship and success of the therapy (Roberts J 2015) -So, to establish good engagement and achieve a high degree of rapport from the family group I use my interpersonal skill and develop effective communication with each family member such as active listening, paraphrasing, summarizing, reflecting and questioning (Sanders 2011) and ensuring that the family members feel respected, heard, and understood. -Empathy, genuineness and a non-judgmental are fundamental to the open and honest responses from client and development of empathic therapeutic relationships (Nelson-Jones, 2012). Therefore, my empathically paying attention to the each familys problem and providing a non-judgmental environment made them feel comfortable on openly deliberating their thoughts, feelings and behaviors. -The aptitude regarding the cultural needs, values, faith, ideals and strengths results in proper family engagement (Rivera-Rodriguez, 2014). Therefore, to avoid limited family engagement I must be culturally sensitive and responsive particularly while working with different cultural background family like Parma and Vashti. Additionally, age, ability to understand, developmental level, culture and languages should be recognized and addressed by the social worker while engaging with all participants (Bach and Grant 2009) in the decision making and care planning process. -In the given case study, Parma and Vashti are migrated to Australia. So, they have different cultural background, language and perspective, to engage them successfully, communication and being culturally competent skills can be useful. -Darin is elder child- age 14 of Parma and Vashti and he is being argumentative and uncooperative with household jobs, he is not concentrating on the study. Therefore when working with Darin and his family the age and gender differences must be considered in engagement plan to recognize the power imbalances between us. For Darin active participation in engagement age appropriate intervention can be practiced. Plus, communication strategies such as internet for young people like Darin, posters easily visible can be provided for his active engagement. – Vishnu and Sharma of age 10 and 8 respectively have different role in the arguments. Vishna was concerned that Darin is worrying their parents and was involved in the argument while Sharma being a quiet girl was avoiding the arguments. Their different personalities and role in the arguments must be considered in the engagement followed by child-focused approach. While engaging with Vishnu and Sharma, I must use age appropriate intervention to communicate with them (Koprowska J. 2010). For example play therapy (Koprowska J. 2010) and free play (Lefevre, 2010) may be useful forms of engagement with Vishnu and Sharma. Adopting a strengths-based approach in engagement will highlights the resources and strengths of the each family member situations (NSW Interagency Guidelines, 2012) As the families are from different social background, being aware of cultural differences, languages my skill should engage them in a manner that is respectful, strengths based and maintains each childs, young persons and familys privacy as well as for proper engagement with the family the availability of interpreter services for translation of material may be required. The family should be engage in an environment which is familiar and child-friendly. Therefore, I must be flexible and respond to needs of the family group in terms of location of service, time of service provision and language. Adopting a child-centered and family focused approach in the engagement will enhance the recognition of positive consequences ( Rouse,L. 2012) Assessment Assessment can be defined as a continual process which concerns making judgements whilst remaining non-judgemental(.Using the Collaborative Family work model-RIDGES , an crucial means which links assessment, planning, intervention, enabled me to highlight the family needs and work effectively with them to improve their family problem. Rules set ground rules At the initial session I introduce myself to the family group and explain my involvement and discuss about the ways the session will be conducted. Then, the rules were discussed and written for clear understanding of the family member in this session. Then, I discussed the issues around confidentiality and the ground rules that would be applied to all sessions with the family group which include listening without interrupting, ensuring each person during session are given equal time to speak and their problems are heard, each family member committing to attend each session, not blaming each other, asking for clarification in case of confusion, the content of the session will be confidential and will not be disclosed with those who are not involved in the session. Problem Identification In this session, my work with Darin and his parents included identifying issues. I organize the individual session with each family member. For example, in the session with Parma and Vashti asking about their experiences and struggles in Australia can helps me to have a clear understanding of their problem. Similarly, in the session with Darin I can ask about his views on the parents control behavior, socialization, loose of his focus on study, his friend groups which also help me to identify his problem. Then, I write down the list of problem provided by family members on the paper and try to figure out the common family problem. For example Darin behavior and parents cultural expectations can be a common issue in the given case study. Decide what to work on first In this stage with collaboration with family member, I clarified and prioritized the issue that are concern of everyone and need to address first. Now with the agreement deciding the issue to address first is important. So, I can provide an option of working on the issue which is solvable first, for example assessing the family dynamics, Darin behavior can be the first problem to work. To add up, I can also ask family to work on the issues where there are accesses of resources present to aid the issue. For example, with the Maslows hierarchy of needs, the problem of family related to basic needs such as financial problem can be identified and can be sort out as well. Goals To set a clear and specific goal negotiation is important so in this step Darin and his parents are brought together for group session and with the mutual understanding common goal is agreed upon the issue that have been addressed to work first. For example Darin losing the focus on study is the issue, so now the parents and Darin coming to an agreement that if Darin studies well then the parents are happy about Darin meeting his friends. Plus, if the issue is Darin staying late at night with friends then they can come up with an agreement of inviting his friends at home. and with the mutual understanding head towards creating a common strategy. Explore the issues on more detail In this session problem that has been identified, need to be explored in greater depth. Using the family centered model in the individual session with each family member could help me to get a clear idea of the problem. With an ecological assessment broader needs of Darin can be achieved. So, I could ask Darin about his parents relationship with him, importance of them in his life, what he expects from the parents, what is socialization means for him and also his perception about father control behavior. Similarly about his friends, I could ask about how often he meets them, what they do in their meeting, how are his friends. So to view his family and friends group, I have used two common tools i.e. genogram that helps to view the clear picture of the family generational and intergenerational relationships, and the other one is ecomap that identifies the relations in families and with outer systems. Similarly, Parma and Vashti could be asked about their support to the children, their expectation, their job satisfaction, importance of children in their life, past experiences, about their future plan for the children. Overall, I can ask since when the conflict started and have they tried to sort it out before. This exploration of issues helps me to identify key issues, family history, cultural identifies and values(Brew and Kottler 2008,p.75) Strategies/tasks In this stage, Darin and his parents can be called for a group session and with the shared negotiation can head towards developing the common strategies for positive results. For example, strategies that can be used to end the family conflict can be parents providing support to Darin , spending definite time together, father helping with Darin homeworks, inviting Darin friends at home, listening to each other. Review how we are going I regularly reviewed the work commenced with the family and the outcome that has been achieved. INTERVENTION PLAN After the assessment with the family group, it became clear that all the family members are in the need of support, so my intervention involve the family as a whole where my work involve executing positive approaches, letting family to amendment. To prepare Darin As Darin is not being able to balance the academic and social life, strategies that reassure his strengths should be developed. For example, with the Introduction of attachment theory Darin and his parents relationship can be enhanced, as Ainsworth (1989) defined attachment as an affectional bond (Prior, 2006, pg.57). To add up, Bowlby (1951) suggests that childs social and emotional development is affected if the strong bond does not develop at an early age. It can be hypothesized that the parents may be unaware about the stages of Darin socio developmental. So, providing the knowledge about the characteristics or changes in that phase to Parma and Vashti will provide Darin a support to recognize his role in the family and society, and his identity. Parma and Vashti It can be hypothesized that Parma and Vashti may have high parental expectations from Darin and can feel like Darin have lost respect for them and that their authority may have been undermined. So Also, it can be assumed that Darins low academic result and decrease in household participation could be the result of his increase socialization and lack of support from his parents. To address this condition, positive parenting strategies can be used to empower families and manage childs behavior (Stormshak et,al 2009). Also, Parma and Vashti involvement in the education of Darin can result to effective relationship between them such as the parents discussing school progress with Darin, helping in doing homework, highlighting the importance of education. The poor academic achievement is the result of parent lack of support to their children (Colphin 2010). Also, it can be hypothesized that the other factors such as work load, financial problem of Parma and Vashti add to the current issues. So, I can suggest the appropriate support services that can help them to come out from their problem. In addition, to support the family group from ongoing problem use of emotional cards help family member to communicate their thoughts, feelings and helps to form an affectional bond (Prior 2006) Darin, Parma and Vashti I could encourage Darin and his parents to build a relationship being more positive towards each other. So, in mutual negotiation the family group can come up with the common strategies for the current issues. The performance reward system such as the parents rewarding Darin for good behavior, praising for his good grade can be practiced which will boost the self-esteem of Darin. Also, the parents might create a friendly environment at home so that Darin doesnt stay late at night, other intervention can be welcoming Darins friend at home and Plus the parents understanding of Darins developmental stage can ease Darin to socialize under a degree of parental supervision. Darin, Parma, Vashti, Vishnu and Sharma As my intervention involves family as a whole, using system theory I can involve all members and assist the family. Similarly, using person centered approach can help me to empower individuals and establish an open, honest relationship with them. So, providing support to the family in understanding and adopting in a different society from theirs may help in developing strong relationships. Summary My hypothesis states that the presence of conflict in the family is the result of Darin increase socialization which has affected his academic and household performance. The parents may be controlling Darin as the cultural expectation of parents arent met. Plus, the parents may be unaware about the stage of Darin socio developmental and may be the parents lack of support has lead Darin to engage more with friends. Considering the cultural, age and gender differences of the family, culturally and age appropriate engagement plan are developed for the active participation of each family member. In collaboration with the family member a plan of action is developed which includes outlining strength, resources, goal for change. For the development of common goal using family centered practice, individual session is conducted by demonstrating the central circumstances of empathy efficiently. Personal reflection References Nelson, J (2012) Introduction to Counselling Skills Text and Activities (4th Ed). Sage, London Rivera-Rodriguez, H. (2014). Engaging Latino Families. In G. Mallon P. Hess (Eds.), Child welfare for the 21st century A handbook of practices, policies, and programs (pp.8693). New York Columbia University Press.eferences Steib, S. (2004). Engaging Families in Child Welfare Practice. Online.Available http//www.Child Welfare League of America Research/Data Research to Practice Initiative Publications Childrens Voice Article Sanders, P (2011) First Steps in Counselling A Students Companion for Introductory Courses Steps in Counselling Series (4th Ed). PCCS, UK Koprowska J. (2010)Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Social Work, 3rd edn, London, Learning Matters Ltd. Lefevre M. (2010)Communicating with Children and Young People Making a Difference, Bristol, The Policy Press. Department of Family and Community Services, New South Wales. (2012) Child Wellbeing and Child Protection NSW Interagency Guidelines. Online. Available HYPERLINK http// http// Stormshak EA, Connell A, Dishion TJ. An adaptive approach to family-centered intervention in schools Linking intervention engagement to academic outcomes in middle and high school.Prevention Science.200910221235. doi 10.1007/s11121-009-0131-3 McLeod,S.(2017).psychological stages Erik Erikson. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https// https// Erikson.html Roberts, J., Fenton, G., Barnard, M. (2015). Developing effective therapeutic relationships with children, young people and their families. Nursing Children And Young People, 27(4), 30-35. doi 10.7748/ncyp.27.4.30.e566 Duffy, J., Collins, M., Kim, S. (2016). Linking family engagement with a rights perspective macro factors influencing practice.European Journal Of Social Work,21(1), 45-60. doi 10.1080/13691457.2016.1255925 Rouse, L. (2012). Family-Centred Practice Empowerment, Self-Efficacy, and Challenges for Practitioners in Early Childhood Education and Care.Contemporary Issues In Early Childhood,13(1), 17-26. doi 10.2304/ciec.2012.13.1.17 Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9
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