This thesis tries to find out the effects of InternationalConvention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) rules on design and productionof cargo ships. When considering the SOLAS rules, it is mostly focused on therules regarding the structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability ofcargo ships and machine installations which are highly related to design andproduction of cargo ships. Some basic design methods such as Rules DesignMethod (RDM) and Interpolation Design Method (IDM) are utilized and some basicdesign parameters such as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) includingspeed, main engine power and hull shape are investigated. The brief history ofSOLAS is given and the additions to the SOLAS by time are outlined.
Therelation between SOLAS rules and the cargo ship design is explained. Basicdesign and production processes with respect to SOLAS rules are researched andreviewed. The rapid industrialization in the past hundred yearsand the increasing production rate and liberalizing economy has led to theimprovements in the trade between countries and continents as well as with theincreasing demand and consumption and enhancing communication channels. Withall these reasons the 90% of the goods transportation of the whole world isbeing conducted via sea transportation. Not only the goods transportation butalso passenger transportation by ships has been improved due to theenhancements of the welfare of the humanity in the late 20thcentury. By the increase of the sea traffic there also arises some concernssuch as terror attacks, accidents, explosions etc. Therefore the need forinternationally approved standards of sea activities has led the governments toestablish a relevant code of conduct which is to regulate the security aspectsof sea transportation.
With rapid changes in the industrial design such asthe era of the industry 4.0, the design and the production processes of cargoships are being updated in short time periods. Whereas design processes arechanging, the design specifications are also changing parallel with the demandsof the market. The recent trends in international trade mostly specify thedesign specifications. If we consider containerized cargo ships, the speed andthe robustness are important factors. One should also keep in mind that thecosts in fuel and resistances may lead to inefficient designs.
We can say thatthe energy efficiency parameter is one of the main tasks in the design process.Also the crew positions and roles are important and essential in the designprocess. We cannot avoid human factor in all the steps of the design and theproduction. On the other hand the updates in SOLAS rules also create newconstraints to the designers and manufacturers.
Thus when designing a cargoship, one must follow a complex and strict code of rules in order to be viablewith respect to SOLAS rules and design criteria.This thesis mainly aims to outline the effects ofSOLAS rules on design and production of cargo ships. When doing so, the SOLASrules on structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability of cargo shipsand machine installations are highly used as references. SOLAS stands for the International Convention forSafety of Life at Sea.
SOLAS does not have one single unit. It can be thoughtas a combination of internationally approved laws and rules regarding thesafety of life at sea including all kinds of activities such as trade andtransportation. Actually the idea of SOLAS came up to mind during 1910s afterthe disaster of Titanic. The international institutions working on maritimeaffairs tried to develop international standards since then. These institutionsgot together several times in order to reach to an internationally approved actof treaty. The initial regulations are accepted just after the Titanicdisaster. Within the time lots of conferences are held and the number of theapproved regulations has become higher.
The most recent conference was held inNovember 1st of 1974 leaded by International Maritime Organization(IMO), a subdivision of the United Nations. The convention accepted in 1974 came intoeffect in 1980. Until then there were also lots of updates and amendments.
Today what we call as SOLAS is the act which is combined in 2004. Since SOLAS is an international paper and signed by162 states, the rules included in SOLAS is applied to those ships which haveinternational routes. Additionally, the flag of the ship determines the countryof responsibility. The SOLAS rules have different sections from varyingsafety areas. These sections can be named as construction, subdivision, damagestability, machine installation and electricity system under the ship safetymain section, fire detection, fire containment and fire extinction under thefire safety main section.
There also exists safety of navigation, lifesaving,radio communication, safety of cargo sections. Totally SOLAS has 12 chapters. First chapter of SOLAS includes the generalapplications, the regulations about the construction of the survey of differentvessels, the documentation based on the SOLAS and the control activities at theports of signatory states.SOLAS Chapter II-1 includes the rules regardingstructure of ships, subdivision and damage stability, machine installation andelectrical installations. This part focuses on the capability of the ship tostay stable after a possible collision.
The ship should be able to meet therules about having watertight compartments in order to sustain the stabilityafter the collision. For this purpose the structural design of the ship shouldmeet these rules. Chapter II-2 includes rules about fire safety, firedetection and fire cautions. Chapter III includes the regulations about life savingdevices and equipments and technical details. Chapter IV includes the standardsabout the radio and telegram communication systems of the vessels. Incompliance with the radio regulation of International Telecommunication Union(ITU), this chapter regulates the general provisions related with GlobalMaritime Danger and Security Systems (GMDSS) such as the obligation of the 300GTs and above vessels to have the devices of Emergency Position IndicatingRadio Beacons (EPIRBs) and Search and Rescue Transponders (SARTs).
Chapter V is mostly about navigation security. Itoutlines the services that the signatory states should offer to allinternational vessels regarding navigation security. This chapter states theobligation of mounting Automatic Identification System (AIS) to specificvessels. Chapter VI regulates the provisions regarding the loading andtransporting of all kind of cargo except liquid and gas.
Chapter VII includes the terms about transportation ofdangerous goods. In this Chapter, it is pointed out that the usage of InternationalMaritime Dangerous Goods (IMDGs) Code, International Bulk Chemical Code (IBCCode), International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code) and International Code for theSafe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-LevelRadioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code) is mandatory. Chapter VIII regulates nuclear vessels and states thatit is mandatory to use Code of Safety for Nuclear Merchant Ships (CSNMS).
Chapter IX regulates the security management systems. In this chapter it is statedthat to use the International Safety Management (ISM) Code is mandatory.Chapter X regulates the security issues of high speedvessels.
In this chapter it is stated that to use the International Code ofSafety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code) is mandatory.Chapter XI deals with the precautions that need to betaken by the signatory states in order to enhance the security of the sea andnavigation. International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code)appears in this chapter. Chapter XII includes additional provisions forstructure of the vessels with minimum 150 meters long and which carry castloads.
As it is seen above SOLAS has a very wide scope withrespect to the needs of the maritime sector. It can be said that every year theSOLAS is being updated. Turkey is also one of the signatory states of SOLAS. Itis obvious that SOLAS has a high enforcement power over the governments.
In this thesis it is not deeply focused on all thechapters of SOLAS. We will be mostly interested in first part of Chapter II inwhich structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability, machineinstallation and electrical installations are regulated. These regulations aredirectly related to the design and production process of a cargo ship.As it is outlined before SOLAS is dictating thesecurity functions to the ship producers. Thus a designer should always keep inmind these rules while performing his/her designs tasks. Even thoughprofitability is highly important for designers, security concerns also shouldbe taken necessary consideration. There should be a balance between these twoissues. As SOLAS rules are changing every year, designers also should beflexible in their design selections and decisions in order to be adaptable intheir following design procedures through following years.
In the recent years, designers are heavily working onto find a solution to reduce the effect of the human factor to a minimum level.Actually the background of SOLAS rules relies on protecting the human life atsea. To comply with the SOLAS rules, designers try to find a way to build upautonomous ships without crew on board which can be remotely controlled from aspecific point such as control unit on the port. In the near future it ispossible to see autonomous ships on their route all around the world. In such ascenario, the SOLAS rules will be definitely updated in order to take cautionsto this new incident. In fact, the autonomous ships are likely to be moreefficient, eco-friendly and safer for humans. This thesis is aimed to investigate the effects ofSOLAS rules on design and production of cargo ships. In order to do so we needto understand the SOLAS rules very well.
The nature of the SOLAS rules istrying to protect the human life and to be respectful to the nature. A designershould not think that SOLAS rules are trying to make things more difficult andless efficient. On the contrary these rules help designers to create moresustainable and safe ships. The SOLAS rules include some formulas for the specificparameters. For instance in the Part B-1- Regulation 25-3 of CHAPTER-II-1 –Construction – Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electricalinstallations, Required subdivision index R is defined as below:1- For ships over 100 m in Ls: R=(0.002 + 0.0009Ls)1/3 WhereLs is in meters; and2- For ships of 80 m in Ls and upwards but notexceeding 100 m in length Ls : R = 1 – 1/(1+((Ls/100)x(Ro/1-Ro))) Where Ro is the value R, as calculated inaccordance with the formula given in the subparagraph 1.
Ls is the subdivision length of the ship. It is the greatest projected moulded lengthof that part of the ship at or below deck or decks limiting the vertical extentof flooding with the ship at the deepest subdivision load line1.In the same regulation it is mentioned that theseregulations are intended to provide ships with a minimum standard ofsubdivision and the degree of subdivision to be provided shall be determined bythe required subdivision index R, asgiven above1.
Permeability(?) of a space is theproportion of the immersed volume of that space which can be occupied by water1. In the Regulation 25-7 of the same chapter and partpermeability of each space or part of a space is defined as below: SPACES Permeability Appropriated to stores 0.60 Occupied by accommodation 0.
95 Occupied by machinery 0.85 Void spaces 0.95 Dry cargo spaces 0.70 Intended for liquid 0 or 0.95 These permeabilityvalues are used in the subdivision and damage stability calculations.In addition toRequired Subdivision Index R and Permeability ?, there are other parameters and factors defined inSOLAS rules such as Attained Subdivision Index A, Factor Pi,Factor Si. These parameters and factors are taken intoaccount by designers with high attention.As it is seen, thereare several points outlined in SOLAS rules which are directly affecting thedesign and production process of cargo ships.
In the following partsof the thesis the relation between SOLAS rules and the design and productionprocess of a cargo ship will be investigated. 1.1 Design and Productionof Cargo Ships To design and producea cargo ship is a complex process and needs to have a collaboration ofdifferent disciplines of engineering and other expertise.
In this thesis it istried to cover a general design and production process of a cargo ship relatedwith the effects of SOLAS rules. Ships can becategorized into different classes such as cargo ships, passenger ships, Ro-Ropassenger ships, ferry, leisure boats etc. In this thesis we are interested incargo ships. Cargo ships can also be classified as dry cargo carrying ships,liquid cargo carrying ships, liquefied gas carrying ships, container ships andcar carrier ships.
Dry bulk cargo carrier ships mostly carry agriculturalcommodities or metal ores and commodities. Liquid bulk cargo carrier shipsmostly carry petroleum products. Liquefied gas carrier ships mostly carryLiquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Passenger shipsare used for people’s travel demand. The size of the ship is determined by thelength of the destination and the purpose of usage. Ro-Ro passenger ships areused for both carrying passengers and trucks loaded with commodities.
This typeof ship is useful for fast logistics operations. Container ships are also veryimportant in cargo carrying operations. Instead of bulk commodities,specialized products can be carried by container cargo ships. Container cargoships mostly carry sensitive and critical products. For instance a Turkishmining company gave an order of a rock grinding machine from China. Themanufacturing company should send this machine parts by a container ship sinceeach part of the machine is very sensitive.
It should be noted that theoperation is not completed when the cargo is arrived to the buyer. Themanufacturing company sends its staff to the buyer’s facility in order to dothe mounting and give training. For this reason the parts should not be damagedduring the transportation. Since container cargo ships carry sensitiveproducts, the designers take this point into account during their design process.Before going throughthe design process, a designer should identify the design requirements verywell. In this phase the designer collects all the data needed for therequirements. The information about the operation of the ship can be useful. Therequirements might be standard for specific models or optional for thecustomer.
The operation route of the ship, i.e. length of the destination isimportant for the design. If the ship is intended to navigate deep seas, thedesign requirements will be suitable for this intention.
The route of theoperation should also be utilized. If the ship is intended to pass from the SuezChannel for instance, the conditions and limitations of this channel should beanalyzed very carefully. Also SOLAS rules regarding passing from a channelshould be considered. Another point is about the ports that the ship isintended to visit. The special applications at the ports should be noted beforethe design process. Design requirements also include the size, hull shape,speed, power, fuel efficiency, loading and unloading mechanisms etc. Whendeciding on these requirements SOLAS rules always behave as a supervisor to thedesigner.
When deciding on the hull shape for instance, SOLAS rules aboutdamage stability helps the designer to take into consideration. It is advisedto assess the drawings periodically with consulting teams in order to be incompliance with SOLAS rules. Once designrequirements are identified, the designer goes through the following step inthe process. The amount of cargo that the ship can carry with specific maximumspeed and under the size limitations is very crucial for the design process.This data will determine several constraints. A good design of acargo ship should also be competing with the existing cargo ships. For thisreason the designer needs to make the self weight and the propulsion power ofthe ship lower compared with the other existing ships on the market.
With acapable design the strength, stability, durability and the robustness of theship will be high and the lifetime service of the ship will be long enough. Thereis an important parameter called BlockCoefficient (Cb) which is used in the beginning of each shipdesign process. Block Coefficient can be defined as the ratio of the underwatervolume of the ship to the volume of a rectangular block having the same overalllength, breadth and depth. Figure 1.
General Illustration of Block Coefficient Figure 1 shows ageneral view of block coefficient. With the dimensions given in the figure, theblock coefficient can be calculated as:Cb = Volumeof the yellow part / LxBxd The ship form linescan be drawn after the block coefficient is determined. Based on the selfweight, power and speed values, the hull form lines are determined using anoptimization process. This process is an iterative process and computer aidedmethods are heavily used in this phase.
The structure of theship should be designed based on the SOLAS rules especially the damagestability rules. The strength of the ship should be longitudinal, transversaland local. The longitudinal strength resists to the longitudinal bending andshear loads. The transversal strength resists to the racking and twisting loadas well as transversal bending and shear loads.
Figure2. Some basic loads on a cargo ship The longitudinalstrength of a cargo ship comes from skin plating around the main hull andlongitudinal strength members. On the other hand the transversal strength comesfrom transverse web frames and transverse bulkheads. The hull of the ship isextremely big and the clothing of the hull is done by the panel members.
Thusthe calculation of the strength around the hull is a complicated process. Thanksto the computer aided methods this phase is held by computerized systems.In every designprocess the aim is to maximize the storing area and to minimize the other areassuch as engine room, accommodation areas etc. Also considering the SOLAS rulesaccommodation areas should be strong enough in any possible damage situation.Engine room and accommodation areas usually designed at the stern part of theship. The strength of the stern is another design goal of the designers.
Basedon the SOLAS rules the subdivision of the compartmentation should be watertightand stable. According to Pounder and Conn, the ship design shouldprovide satisfactory steering characteristics and freedom from troublesomevibration and compliance with SOLAS rules 2.Figure3. A typical ship building areaAccording to Chakraborty, the hull geometry of a cargoship is highly related to the function of the ship 3.
The authoroutlines that the hull geometry of a container cargo ship and an oil tankerwould be totally different from each other due to the different speedexpectations from these ships. The geometry of the hull determines the speed ofthe ship. The high speed cargo ships should have minimum hull resistance inorder to reach expected speed levels.Watson and Gilfillan states that when designing containercargo ships, the limitations of the container tiers should be determined in agood way in order to keep the balance on the ship 4. The weightsof the containers should not be the same at different tiers, i.e. the lowertiers should have the heavier containers.
The authors points out the importanceof the length/beam ratio, a design constraint which determines the number ofcontainer rows in the length of the ship.Vossen, et. al., defines the compliance between thedesign process and international regulations, namely SOLAS rules as externalrequirements. The authors point out the importance to this compliance as wellas safe and secure shipping.
The authorsgive some details about spiral design process which is shown in Figure 4.Figure4. Ship Design Spiral (Evans, 1959) Vossen, et.
al., underlines that international rulesand regulations are getting more stringent with respect to environmentalconcerns and safety aspects 5. In this thesis Rules Design Method (RDM) and InterpolationDesign Method (IDM) are utilized. These methods are included in so calledKnowledge Based Engineering (KBE). KBE is a phenomenon which can provide achance to test the existing design solutions with respect to the determined setof certain design parameters and also to assist the designer in the overalldesign process.
Even though CAD/CAM software systems are heavily used in cargoship design process, manual interaction by the designer should be present ineach steps of the design process in order to supply the coherence betweenactual design and digital design.In naval design area there are not several knowledgebased methods and approaches. Designers use limited number of open standardsand formats for some specific kinds of knowledge representation which arerelated to data modeling and data exchange. Rules Design Method suggests some certain rules in thedesign process and works on existing facts memory. If any addition to thedesign process in the means of a parameter is needed, the existing rule updatesitself based on the design targets. Interpolation Design Method uses the interpolation ofset of curves in order to generate surfaces in the skinning process, let’s sayfor hull design for instance.
There are different numerical approaches in thiskind of design method. This thesis will utilize this method by comparing someapproaches and giving relevant details of application. REFERENCES1 SOLAS – International Convention for the Safety ofLife at Sea – Lloyd’s Register Rulefinder 2005 – Version 9.
42 Ship Construction – Cuthbert Coulson Pounder, J.F. C. Conn, retrieved from https://www.britannica.
com3 Understanding Design of Container Ships – Soumya Chakraborty,Naval Architecture, 08.10.2017. 4 Some Ship Design Methods – D.
G.M. Watson, A.
W.Gilfillan, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Glasgow, 09.11.
1976. 5 Ship Design and System Integration – ChristinaVossen, Robert Kleppe, Randi Hjorungnes, Rolls-Royce Marine AS, 003.03.2015.