study aimed to examine students’ satisfaction and engagement and to enhance
teaching and learning experiences through interactive teaching and learning
process based on flipped classroom approach. In this model, students are active
participants in the learning process. Multimedia lectures were pre-recorded and
posted on UM Spectrum before the class so that students can view them out of
class and at their own pace. The results showed that students were generally
satisfied with the redesigned course, suggesting that flipped classroom could
be an effective teaching technique to incorporate into existing courses and to encourage
students to become independent self-learners.
Higher education institutions are facing intense scrutiny to improve the
quality of student learning and demonstrate programme effectiveness. Active
learning and student engagement are promising mean to this end. In recent years, many instructors have moved away from being a “sage
on the stage” to becoming a “guide on the stage”. This include blended learning; where students receive a combination of
traditional face to face (F2F) instruction in class and are also required to
complete activities outside of the class, facilitated through a range of
technological resources. The flipped classroom or inverted classroom is one
type of blended learning approach which has become increasingly popular in
The flipped classroom is an innovative pedagogical
approach that focuses on learner-centered instruction.
This approach suggests that multimedia lectures be recorded and offloaded for
students so that they can view the
multimedia lectures prior to class and at their own pace (homework). Content
acquisition then is self-paced and self-guided, enabling students to control
the learning environment by proceeding through content at their own pace. Moreover,
students have the opportunity to fully participate and engage in class
discussion. Instructors will guide students to the content, challenge students
to think creatively, and provide expert insight and feedback.
The efficacy of the flipped classroom has been reported
by researchers in various disciplines. Student perceptions of the flipped
classroom are somewhat mixed, but are generally positive. Therefore, this study
aimed to examine students’ satisfaction and engagement and to enhance teaching
and learning experiences through interactive teaching and learning process
based on flipped classroom approach.
The flipped classroom is a technology-enhanced pedagogy
that has grown popular in education settings. It replaces the traditional didactic
lecture with active in-class tasks and pre- and/or post-class works,
revolutionizing the way that students receive information from their instructors.
In a traditional classroom, students take lecture notes and spend time
memorizing knowledge without actively participating in the learning process.
This has directly and indirectly affected student engagement and learning
process. In a flipped classroom, information-transmission component of a
traditional face-to-face lecture takes place outside of class time. Students are required
to do traditional classwork at home and
complete their homework in class with the instructor present to assist the
students to the
evidence generally supports the benefits
of flipped classroom, there are still very scarce insights regarding the
potential of flipped classroom model in fostering student learning and engagement.
Therefore, this study was undertaken to
examine students’ satisfaction and engagement through interactive teaching and
learning process based on flipped classroom approach.
A total of 12 Master students from diverse background was participated
in 14-week “Plant and Animal Improvements” course in Semester 1 2017/18. In
this study, students were exposed to traditional lecture-based classroom and
flipped classroom. In the traditional lecture-based classroom, students
attended the didactic lecture and did the homework after class. The class
periods, other than quizzes and the midterm, were spent in lectures and solving
textbook-type problems. In the flipped classroom, students were asked to watch
the pre-recorded lectures before the class and use the class time for homework
discussion. The class time, other than weekly quizzes and
exams, was spent solving problems, either individually or in groups. All students were asked to complete
feedback questionnaires after completed each approach.
The results showed that students were generally satisfied
with some aspects of the redesigned course, including content and topics of the
learning materials, e-learning course flexibility as well as technology and
multimedia resources used. Surveys and in-class discussions indicated that students’
attitudes were positive toward the use of digital technologies to enhance their
learning but not to substitute the role of the lecturer. Most students still
value face-to-face interaction and do not see online learning environment as a
total substitution to the traditional lecture.
There are some limitations encountered in this study. The
number of students enrolled in this course was very low. The response from the low
number of participants may not reflect the learning gain from the flipped classroom
approach. Besides, the results focus only on students’ satisfaction regarding
their experience with the traditional and flipped classroom approaches. It is valuable
to understand students’ perceptions and relationship of other indicators of student
engagement in the flipped classroom, which is a suggestion for future studies.
The paper provides insights into learning processes
required for active engagement in student-centred classes. The study also showed
that flipped classroom could be an effective teaching technique to incorporate
into existing courses and that it does provide some benefits compared to