Thilagavathi equation TAV. It was observed that, fabric

Thilagavathi
et al. (2003) have developed a method for the measurement of fabric three-dimensional
drape and studied the various factors that influences drape. In this study
various polyester and cotton blended fabric samples of varying weft densities
were used. Three-dimensional drape method gave new drape evaluation parameters
like nodal length, number of nodes, nodal distance etc. While studying draping
behaviour of cotton shirting fabrics using three dimensional drape meters, it
was found that with increase in weft density DC increases to a maximum value
and thereafter decreases.  In the case of
polyester/cotton blended fabrics, an increasing trend in DC is observed with
increase in polyester content. Dyeing treatment decreases the value of DC of
fabrics.34 

Hu
et al. (1998) studied the effect of fabric mechanical properties on drape. The
attempts were made to find the correlation between the DC measured by Cusick drape
meter and sixteen low stress mechanical properties of finished woven fabric
obtained from KES-F. It is concluded that, eight low stress mechanical
parameters from bending, shear, surface and weight properties have high degree
of correlation with fabric drape. In further investigations, it was found that bending
hysteresis and shear rigidity are the most drape influencing low stress
mechanical property of the fabric.31

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Frydrych et al. (2000) observed that fabric formability
has a good correlation with DC in weft direction with negative trend. This
correlation, in both warp and weft way direction was found to be moderate.34

 

2.7       Investigations
of TAV

Inoue et al. (2000)
assessed the quality of ladies garment fabrics and equation for the prediction
of TAV was developed. In this study 280 samples were subjectively analyzed by
team of 17 experts, stepwise block regression method was used for developing
equation TAV. It was observed that, fabric properties viz. formability, elastic
potential and the drapability contributes to the fabric TAV. The degree of
contribution made by these properties towards TAV varies according to the types
of silhouette. Formability component contributes greatly to the TAV of tailored
type fabrics.

Mori et al. (2007)
studied the effect of weave density, on the handle and appearance of men’s suit
fabrics. In this study, authors had produced 12 suit fabrics composed from
merino woolen yarns by varying warp and weft yarn densities. The effect of
weave density on fabric appearance was checked by analyzing fabric porosity. It
was found that, TAV has very high degree correlation with the fabric porosity.
As the fabric porosity becomes increases TAV decreases.

It can be determined
from the above study that, fabric porosity is an inverse function of weave
density. The warp and weft densities determine the fabric’s final weave
density. As the weft or warp density reduces, fabric porosity increases.
Increased fabric porosity reduces bending rigidity, bending hysteresis and
shear rigidity. In general TAV components viz. formability, drape and elastic
potentials shows higher values for the higher bend stiffness, bending
hysteresis and shear rigidity. Therefore, from above study it can be
established that, lower warp / weft / warp and weft density gives lower TAV as
a function of higher fabric porosity.

 Behera et al. (2007) investigated the effect
of crease behavior, drape and formability on the appearance of light weight
worsted suiting fabrics. Authors had developed worsted fabrics of different
blends, using wide range of areal densities and fiber types.  The effect of crease recovery angle on the
fabric appearance was analyzed. It is concluded that, there exist a high degree
negative correlation between crease recovery and fabric appearance. Authors
obtained higher TAV for lower crease recovery of fabric. It indicates that,
high crease retention tendency of the fabric is related to its better
appearance. Further, it is stated that fiber initial modulus plays a vital role
in crease recovery behaviour of fabric. Higher initial modulus of fiber gives higher
crease resistance, therefore higher crease recovery angle and eventually gives lower
TAV of fabric.  

In study of fabric drape
influence on appearance, it is found that DC is negatively correlated with fabric
appearance. DC in the range of 35-40% is most favorable for achieving the
better appearance of fabric. Also, it is stated that fabric appearance depends
on the several other parameters like higher initial modulus, tenacity,
extensibility etc., which improves low the stress mechanical properties of fabric
and thereby improves its appearance. About the influence of formability on the
fabric appearance, it is stated that fabric formability is positively
correlated to its appearance. Higher value of warp and weft formability gives higher
fabric appearance. Warp formability in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 is most promising
for better appearance of fabrics. Finer fibers provide more cohesiveness in
yarn structure, which increases bending rigidity, formability and eventually fabric
appearance.

Gersak
(2002) studied the impact of fabric mechanical property parameters on the degree
of garment appearance quality. In this work, the system for qualitative
evaluation of garment appearance was developed, where author made a prediction of
garment appearance degree using knowledge based system and fuzzy logic. In the
study of fabric extensibility influence, it is analyzed that higher warp wise
extension has a detrimental effect on the garment appearance. Higher fabric
extension influences garment overfeeding operation and thereby formability and
eventually produces unesthetic garment appearance. Further it is stated that, fabric
of low bending rigidity, shear rigidity and lower shear hysteresis influences
fabric deformation in the area of seam, which reduces fabric appearance due to seam
puckering. Further, it is stated that garment appearance quality is also affected
by the ratio between fabric extension in the direction of warp and weft. This
ratio is used for ladies wear is around 1, higher or lower value than 1 result into
the seam puckering. This gives poor behaviour of fabric covering different body
curvature contours. Consequently this gives lower visual appearance of
garments. 

Thilagavathi
et al. (2003) have developed a method for the measurement of fabric three-dimensional
drape and studied the various factors that influences drape. In this study
various polyester and cotton blended fabric samples of varying weft densities
were used. Three-dimensional drape method gave new drape evaluation parameters
like nodal length, number of nodes, nodal distance etc. While studying draping
behaviour of cotton shirting fabrics using three dimensional drape meters, it
was found that with increase in weft density DC increases to a maximum value
and thereafter decreases.  In the case of
polyester/cotton blended fabrics, an increasing trend in DC is observed with
increase in polyester content. Dyeing treatment decreases the value of DC of
fabrics.34 

Hu
et al. (1998) studied the effect of fabric mechanical properties on drape. The
attempts were made to find the correlation between the DC measured by Cusick drape
meter and sixteen low stress mechanical properties of finished woven fabric
obtained from KES-F. It is concluded that, eight low stress mechanical
parameters from bending, shear, surface and weight properties have high degree
of correlation with fabric drape. In further investigations, it was found that bending
hysteresis and shear rigidity are the most drape influencing low stress
mechanical property of the fabric.31

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Frydrych et al. (2000) observed that fabric formability
has a good correlation with DC in weft direction with negative trend. This
correlation, in both warp and weft way direction was found to be moderate.34

 

2.7       Investigations
of TAV

Inoue et al. (2000)
assessed the quality of ladies garment fabrics and equation for the prediction
of TAV was developed. In this study 280 samples were subjectively analyzed by
team of 17 experts, stepwise block regression method was used for developing
equation TAV. It was observed that, fabric properties viz. formability, elastic
potential and the drapability contributes to the fabric TAV. The degree of
contribution made by these properties towards TAV varies according to the types
of silhouette. Formability component contributes greatly to the TAV of tailored
type fabrics.

Mori et al. (2007)
studied the effect of weave density, on the handle and appearance of men’s suit
fabrics. In this study, authors had produced 12 suit fabrics composed from
merino woolen yarns by varying warp and weft yarn densities. The effect of
weave density on fabric appearance was checked by analyzing fabric porosity. It
was found that, TAV has very high degree correlation with the fabric porosity.
As the fabric porosity becomes increases TAV decreases.

It can be determined
from the above study that, fabric porosity is an inverse function of weave
density. The warp and weft densities determine the fabric’s final weave
density. As the weft or warp density reduces, fabric porosity increases.
Increased fabric porosity reduces bending rigidity, bending hysteresis and
shear rigidity. In general TAV components viz. formability, drape and elastic
potentials shows higher values for the higher bend stiffness, bending
hysteresis and shear rigidity. Therefore, from above study it can be
established that, lower warp / weft / warp and weft density gives lower TAV as
a function of higher fabric porosity.

 Behera et al. (2007) investigated the effect
of crease behavior, drape and formability on the appearance of light weight
worsted suiting fabrics. Authors had developed worsted fabrics of different
blends, using wide range of areal densities and fiber types.  The effect of crease recovery angle on the
fabric appearance was analyzed. It is concluded that, there exist a high degree
negative correlation between crease recovery and fabric appearance. Authors
obtained higher TAV for lower crease recovery of fabric. It indicates that,
high crease retention tendency of the fabric is related to its better
appearance. Further, it is stated that fiber initial modulus plays a vital role
in crease recovery behaviour of fabric. Higher initial modulus of fiber gives higher
crease resistance, therefore higher crease recovery angle and eventually gives lower
TAV of fabric.  

In study of fabric drape
influence on appearance, it is found that DC is negatively correlated with fabric
appearance. DC in the range of 35-40% is most favorable for achieving the
better appearance of fabric. Also, it is stated that fabric appearance depends
on the several other parameters like higher initial modulus, tenacity,
extensibility etc., which improves low the stress mechanical properties of fabric
and thereby improves its appearance. About the influence of formability on the
fabric appearance, it is stated that fabric formability is positively
correlated to its appearance. Higher value of warp and weft formability gives higher
fabric appearance. Warp formability in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 is most promising
for better appearance of fabrics. Finer fibers provide more cohesiveness in
yarn structure, which increases bending rigidity, formability and eventually fabric
appearance.

Gersak
(2002) studied the impact of fabric mechanical property parameters on the degree
of garment appearance quality. In this work, the system for qualitative
evaluation of garment appearance was developed, where author made a prediction of
garment appearance degree using knowledge based system and fuzzy logic. In the
study of fabric extensibility influence, it is analyzed that higher warp wise
extension has a detrimental effect on the garment appearance. Higher fabric
extension influences garment overfeeding operation and thereby formability and
eventually produces unesthetic garment appearance. Further it is stated that, fabric
of low bending rigidity, shear rigidity and lower shear hysteresis influences
fabric deformation in the area of seam, which reduces fabric appearance due to seam
puckering. Further, it is stated that garment appearance quality is also affected
by the ratio between fabric extension in the direction of warp and weft. This
ratio is used for ladies wear is around 1, higher or lower value than 1 result into
the seam puckering. This gives poor behaviour of fabric covering different body
curvature contours. Consequently this gives lower visual appearance of
garments. 

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