? – How should Canada respond to global population issues?Can Governments Control Population Growth? Should They?For decades, governments in developing nations have worked long and hard hours in order to reduce the population growth rate of their country.
The government knows that a high population growth rate interferes with economics and social progress.China’s One-Child policy has been the most known of these efforts.Demographic Change: Problems For Your Future or Opportunities?Let’s start with two facts that seem disconnected:In 2014 Singapore had a total fertility rate (TFR) of 0.80.
This means that the average number of children per women was less than one. An often heard question is “How can women have less than one child?” Many women are having one child if not none, and a small number are having two or more. When calculated it all averages to 0.80 children per women. As a result, the countries population is at a “demographic turning point” and the financial resources have been switched to providing facilities for the elderly than schools.Ever since you were in Grade 2, you have wanted to become a teacher.Singapore is a prime example of birth dearth, which refers to falling fertility rates.
(A dearth is a shortage or lack of something). This is happening in both developed and developing countries like Canada, China and Vietnam.Wanting to be a teacher is a great ambition and you will be able to live a modest lifestyleThough there is one, very significant problem: Will you be able to get a job?Population ProjectionsMany believe that the world is already overpopulated.
Most forecasts suggest that by 2050 there will be two billion more people (Figure 11-2).What has caused this problem? What might help or reduce it? To answer these question you need to learn about demographic transition model.A model is created to help us understand complicated systems.The model is an indicator of a country’s (or the entire world’s) path from a high birth rate to a high death rate demographic pattern to a low birth rate a death pattern.
The Demographic Transition ModelThe concept of this term is rather simple if you think about the meaning of the two words. Demographic refers to population, while a transition is a gradual change. Which means the concept of demographic transition refers to the gradual population change. Demographers have created a model that goes through the four stages that describe what a country’s population goes through (Figure 11-3). Canada is no exception to this process, as we are already at Stage 4, the final stage. Demographic transition has occurred in our society because of the major trends throughout it:The development and improvements in agricultureRural-urban population shiftWomen’s role in society, the change of itAttitude changes in relation to family sizeStage 1: Pre-TransitionWhat? Defined by high birth rates and a high death rate that is similar. The average woman has 6 to 10 children in her lifetime, but most don’t reach adulthood. Which results in little to no population increase.
When did it start? Until sometime in the 19th century, Stage 1 existed from the begging of human history, and in developed countries like Canada. This continued into the 20th century, in developing countries. Though in this century, 21st century, there is no country still at this stage today.What was happening in society? A majority of the population sustained themselves by hunting, gathering food, and later by simple subsistence farming (Figure 11-4). Having many of children was a benefit because they could work and a couple would make it to adulthood. Hardships they went through include:-An epidemic, Black Death, which occurred in the 14th century in Europe and Asia that killed between 100 to 200 million people and reduced the population of Europe by 30 percent to 60 percent.-20 million to 40 million people in China between 1850 and 1864 died as a result of The Taiping Rebellion.-Many died, though majority belonged to children, because of disease, poor nutrition, and contaminated drinking water.
Stage 2: Early TransitionWhat? The birth rate is high while the death rate is rapidly declining. As such, the country’s total population in Stage 2 will increase, not because of an increase in births but of a rapid decrease in death rates. Only a few, poverty-stricken countries, primarily in the northern part of Africa – Chad and Niger – that go through droughts, are still in Stage 2.
When did it start? Stage 2 started as early as the late 1700s, in most developed parts of the world. This stage occurs much later but much quicker in developing parts of the world. Stage 2 did not begin until the 1960s for financially struggling countries.What was happening in society? At the time many people were still farmers, but because of technological advances more farmers became interested and involved in the production of commercial foods (Figure 11-5). Better food storage methods and sanitation improvements were developed, which improved food security and meant fewer diseases. Fewer farmers were needed because of an increase in productive agriculture. People then migrated to an urban centre to find a source of income. People continued to have more children, and more made it to adulthood and started a family of their own.
Stage 3: Late TransitionWhat? The death rates become low and birth rates decrease. Attitude towards large families changes, especially in cities, usually as a result of the change of the female role in society, access to protection(contraception), and the cost of raising children. Most developing parts of the world are now in this phase.When did it start? Stage 3 started in most developed parts of the world during the late 19th century. Western Europe is the best example. In less developed countries birth rates have dropped much later, but much quicker.
What was happening in society? Rural to urban migration was common throughout the worlduntil a vast majority of the population settled in cities(Figure 11-6). An increase in agricultural productivity continued, based on people’s dependence on machinery.Stage 4: Post-TransitionWhat? The birth and death rate are both low, stabilizing population size. When did start? This phase is quite new, it took countries like Canada.
Japan, and Germany the last 30 years or so to reach it.What was happening in society? All the previously mentioned trends have continued, aside from the movie to cities. In some developed countries like Canada, Dominican Republic, and South Korea, the urban population is above 80 percent.
The role of women in this stage has changed, as many are currently holding a full-time career.Global Population and PovertyUsing a demographic transition model, you can better understand a country’s population growth