There is no ideal type of leadership for any situation; it alldepends upon the people handling the situation. But to give an example,Autocratic leadership would be really effective for a newly appointed recruitbecause in this case complete guidance and instructions are required as theperson is new to the organization, its systems and rules Charismatic (not just popular) leaders like Napoleon Bonaparte,Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela etc. have inspired millions of people over theirlifetime. People believed in their decisions and understood their action.Similarly, in an organization, the employees will follow and will be controlledby a leader who is charismatic and can make people believe in his/her actions.It takes a great deal to build the trust of employees and if they believe inyour decisions, they will atomically follow the path you are leading them to.
Resistance Resistance is the biggest enemy of control. The more freedom ofchoice a person gets, the less resistance there is going to be. An employeewill only be influenced when he/she believes that they have been given a freechoice. The choices can be narrow but if there are no choices, it won’t feellike freedom and resistance will come in. For exampleMr.
Rig (Boss) asked Stacy (employee) to complete a particulartask by Tuesday evening. Instead Mr. Rig couldn’t give Stacy a choice by completingthe same task by Tuesday afternoon or evening. This was Stacy has a feeling ofbeing given a freedom of choice and the boss, Mr. Rig gets the work done ontime without any resistance, In a way controlling the whole situation andemployee reaction to an avoidable situation. However, there are some cultures where people do not toleratechoice or do not encourage a lot of choice.
Internal BehaviorSome may think that control is a kind of influence, which canonly be done from the outside, but there is Internalization of Values, whichdrives a person to follow another person or a path. Internalization can triggercontrol. If an employee is extremely satisfied and happy at his workplace, hewill automatically align their aims and goals to the organizations aims andgoals thus eliminating the need of any kind of positive as well as negativereinforcement.
The internalization of values freely helps make the workenvironment positive where there is no resistance. Foot in the door technique- This technique suggest that ifpeople are asked to do a large task, followed by small one they will mostly sayyes SOFT AND HARD TACTICS Soft and Hard tactics can be used to control employees, theseare influential but at the same time helps in the growth of the employee in theorganization. Some of the soft tactics involve seeking opinion and ideas fromthe employees on a certain project or topic to make them feel like an essentialpart of the team.
The more involved an employee is in a business decision, theless resistance he shall show as the decision involves his output and opinionstoo. Also, consultation sessions organized with the sole purpose ofhelping employee grow. All the superior members or the bosses should attend consultationssession with the employees by treating them like equal. For example- At Wal-Mart, all the employees are associates;there is no boss and employee as they all share the same designation. Coming to the hard tactics, it is mostly for the people who aredependent on the approval of others The most common type of hard tactics is Flattery. Since thepeople who are at the receiving end of the flattery have a high need ofapproval, their ego boost is tremendous by some kind words of flattery.
It isactually a very common type of tactic to control employees or people in general. The effect of flattery becomes stronger whenit is followed by positive reinforcement. Economy of favors comes with a norm of social reciprocity. Asthey say, a favor for a favor. It isvery common in a organization when employees ask each other for favors or theemployees ask fro favors from their superior or vice versa.
When is a person isbound in a favor, the other person an amount of control over the other. Employee can only be controlled when there is very little or noresistance from their end. It is a huge task to maintain a healthy environmentin the organization so no resistance arises from the employees. To avoidresistance the superiors should come out and openly talk about the issues andproblems that the employees are facing. Sometimes, due to the fear of judgmentemployees don’t come up with their problem. But if the bosses talk openly withtheir employees this problem wont arise Organizationbehavior refers to a set of values and beliefs that are made by the heads of anorganization and carried forward by the employees of the organization.Employees working in a company with strong organization culture tend to be moremotivated and have sense of belongingness and commitment to the company.
Organizationculture helps the company in the long run as it creates a brand image of theorganization. Healthy work culture encourages the employees to work more. Italso helps in promotion of healthy competition among the employees.
Theemployees get very involved with the organization due to the culture, thisbuilds an emotional attachment with the organization. Every organization shouldset some guidelines that need to be followed by every employee. Theseguidelines should be set in such a way that they bring the best out of everyemployee. Theorganization culture and guidelines should meet both the needs of theorganization and the employees. Meeting the needs of the employees is extremelyimportant as it a major driver for a person to stick to one company. In caseswhere employees feel that they are not growing or meeting their goals, theywill just move on to another organization. Every employment opportunityconsists of some tangibles and intangibles. Tangibles like benefits and pay andintangibles like trust, work – life management and relationship withcolleagues.
In cases where the reasons are tangible for an employee to leave,the organization easily do some alterations to retain the employee. In case thereason is intangible, it becomes very tough for a company to hold on to thatperson. These are situations when a company needs to look at its organizationculture and make changes.
These changes take time but it is important for everycompany to find these holes in their organization culture.Companyshould take efforts for encouraging their employees to pursue their interest.Such efforts create an emotional connect between the employee and theorganization. The ex CEO of the Indian IT giant Infosys Vishal Sikka gifted anIphone 6s to 3000 of his top performing employees. He also wrote them a mail,addressing them as friends. Such gestures create a positive influence on theentire workforce. Organizational behavior is a fundamental business strategy,ithelporganization’s sustain performance.
It creates an emotional connect and helpsin maintaining a competitive advantage. Characteristics of OrganizationCulture Unity Acommon organizational culture joins workers of various socioeconomics. Numerousrepresentatives inside an association originate from various foundations,families and conventions and have their own particular societies. Having acommon culture at the working environment gives them a feeling of solidarityand comprehension towards each other, advancing better correspondence and fewerclashes. Moreover, common culture advances equity by guaranteeing norepresentative is dismissed at the working environment and that each is dealtwith similarly. LoyaltyOrganizationculture keeps workers inspired and faithful to the organization. They feel ahigher feeling of achievement for being a piece of a company they care aboutand work harder without being constrained.
CompetitionCompetitionamong employees is one of the outcomes of organization culture. In suchsituations employees work harder than before in order to earn recognition fromtheir superiors, this benefits the organization too as the quality of work goesup. DirectionAshared organization culture provides the employees with a direction, this helpsthe employees in staying on track.
It also helps the employees in understandingtheir roles and responsibilities. IdentityAnorganization culture creates an image or identity for the organization. This isextremely important as on the basis of this people will be encouraged ordiscouraged to join the company. It also helps in creating the goodwill of thecompany in the industry. Schein’s Model Of OrganizationCulture (1985)EdgarSchein proposed a model for organization culture. According to him there are 3levels of organizational culture. ArtifactsThis isthe first level of the organization culture which can be seen, heard and feltby everybody.
These incorporate clothing standard, office furniture,facilities, conduct of the workers and the vision and mission of theorganization. Espoused ValuesValuesare at a higher level when we compare it to assumptions. Values are based onthe thought process and beliefs of an employee. These values can have a deepimpact on the overall organizational culture. These values influence the employeesdecision to judge whether a situation is favorable or unfavorable.
These valuesoften lead back to the basic assumptions within the organization. Basic Underlying AssumptionsAssumptionsare beliefs which are taken for granted therefore are never challenged. Everyculture in any organization is formed on the basis of some basic assumption.
These assumptions cannot be described, as they are intangible. People who havebeen with the organization for a long time generally understand theseassumptions. For example we assume that women would not be comfortable workinglate.