There for their transportation services. Since the Philippines

There is a growing interest in finding a
way to counter climate change for everyone, especially for students, during
regular days or during calamities like typhoons in the Philippines. One
specific problem that is related to climate change is sudden rainfall.
According to the Philippine, Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (PAGASA), rainfall is the most important climatic element in the
Philippines. The mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to
4,064 millimeters annually. Clark (2011) reported that changes in rainfall and
other forms of precipitation will be one of the most critical factors
determining the overall impact of climate change. Rainfall is much more
difficult to predict than temperature but there are some statements that
scientists can make with confidence about the future. Overall, sudden rainfall
is something that should be issued as a serious matter because it greatly
affects everyone, mostly the students since it can happen anytime, anywhere and
could bring flash floods that could damage the entire community.

            A
huge number of students are affected to sudden rainfall, which has been a
problem ever since because not all students can afford paying for their
transportation services. Since the Philippines is a country that has a tropical
rainforest climate, meaning that the climate is very humid because of all the
rainfall, it is more prone to sudden rainfall which could happen anytime and
would have a sudden but heavy downpour on land. Calonzo (2009) described that
the rainfall brought by tropical storm Ondoy to Metro Manila and nearby areas
in a span of six hours on Saturday was the most in recorded history, surpassing
the previous record for the metropolis in 1967. Nathaniel Cruz, weather
services bureau head of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and
Astronomical Services Administration, told GMANews.TV that the total rainfall
from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Saturday surpassed the highest 24-hour rainfall that the
weather bureau recorded 42 years ago. This could be again a manifestation of
climate change. Due to climate change, we should expect more extreme weather
events like extreme rainfall, he said. Montenegro (2015) supports a study that
was published in the journal Climatic Change. The study, made by Jascha
Lehmann, Dim Coumou and Katja Frieler, has found that an increase in
record-breaking rainfall levels after 1980 can be related to rising global
temperatures. We show that over the last three decades the number of
record-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean, the
study said. In the case for students, most public schools that are experiencing
heavy rainfall would mean that they’d expect that the students wouldn’t come to
class anymore due to flooded areas that affect their way going to school and
vice versa, for the students who need to go home but can’t because they don’t have
the transportation to do this. This is really a problem that needs attention
and awareness because these are for the children and for the community.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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            Having
sudden rainfall is not directly linked to students, but due to this, students
have a hard time on the way to school or back home because they would get
caught by it and would eventually get wet even if they use an umbrella or a
jacket. One situation would be students who struggle to cross strong currents
as floodwaters rise at a residential area in Las Piñas last 2013. Another
similar situation that happened last August 20, 2013, wherein a passenger bus
commutes along a flooded highway as heavy rains pummel Manila. Taylor (2013)
observed that relentless monsoon rains and Tropical Storm Trami wreaked havoc
in the Philippines, causing at least ten deaths and severely flooding wide
swaths of the capital Manila. Flood-battered residents from coastal areas and
mountainous regions appealed for help, after days of some of the Philippines’
heaviest rains on record. Basa (2014) described how the Philippine Stock
Exchange (PSE) suspended trading over tropical storm Mario. Please be advised
that there will be no trading at the Philippine Stock Exchange and no clearing
and settlement at the Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines today,
September 19, due to the suspension of clearing and settlement operations in
the Philippine banking system, the PSE said in a statement. Knowing all these
show the importance and the impact of sudden rainfall in the Philippines, but
it also shows us that we could make an effort to at least counter them.

            Sudden
rainfall has become an important aspect on attributing to climate change. It
has also become a common problem but hasn’t been solved completely due to its
lack of awareness that it’s a major problem. Tarlach (2017) claimed that rain
reigns over us: It’s the main way liquid water, necessary for all earthly
life-forms, disperses across the planet. Dreher (2017) established that the
shape and color of clouds can help you predict rain. Dreher (2017) also
proposed that there’s a scientifically proven way to get less wet in the rain
which is running. CoolKidFacts (2016) also reported that water stays in some
places longer than others. A drop of water may spend over 3,000 years in the
ocean before moving on to another part of the water cycle. On average a drop of
water spends an average of 8 days in the atmosphere before falling back down to
Earth. Lastly, the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration observed that the mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies
from 965 to 4,064 millimeters annually.

            Sudden
rainfall should be given more attention now that the people know the damages it
could give to the entire community. There has been a lot of alternatives that
has been invented/created in order to cope with rainfall. In a study by
Contreras et.al (2013), they stated that In a tropical country such as the
Philippines, abundant rainfall is considered a water resource for development
and yet it is not fully used due to the seasonality of its occurrence.
Rainwater harvesting through small water impounding projects (SWIPs) addresses
the unbalanced rainfall distribution by collecting and storing direct rainfall
and surface runoff for future use. The United Nations Development Programme
also started the Project Climate Twin Phoenix, which aimed to assess the
disaster vulnerabilities of the affected areas of Regions 10 and 11 in Mindanao,
to geological, meteorological and meteorologically-induced hazards due to
climate change. The results will provide the basis for priority mitigation
actions like community- based and -managed early warning systems, and
integrated contingency planning and mobilization. In the aftermath of Typhoon
Bopha that hit the country in December 2012, the project extended its
assistance to the affected provinces of Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental in
Region 11, which was formalized in February 2013 through a Memorandum of
Understanding. The project also conducted a Training of Trainers on the Basics
of Climate and Disaster Risks, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk
Management as well as a Training of Trainers on Geographic Information System
for local partners.

            There
is a need to investigate on how people can be more aware of the effects of
sudden rainfall to the community and the environment, what could be a possible
counter to it and how to prepare for it. Milman (2015) reported that Haiyan
offered a case study on how climate change is a live issue for the Philippines.
The IPCC predicts that climate change is likely to cause tropical cyclones to
become more severe with greater wind speeds and more intense precipitation – a
nightmarish scenario for a country already battered by around 20 typhoons a
year. Aid agencies – Plan International, Save the Children, the Red Cross and
others – gathered under the UN’s cluster system, which groups charities
together to help in certain areas, such as shelter, health and education.
(Milman, 2015). The World Health Organization (WHO) stated preparedness as key.
WHO determined the typhoons’ immediate impact on the health sector to be low
with 30 health facilities damaged but functioning, however, other sectors,
especially livelihoods, are expected to have an important impact on the
affected population’s vulnerability to health impacts. For example, extensive
damages to crops at harvest time in regions already badly affected by the El
Niño phenomenon are expected to increase food insecurity through March 2016.

CARS approach Move 1B (1 – 6)

 

            A
considerable amount of literature has been published on the need to have
raincoats attached to backpacks. Raincoats are jackets made of fabric that is
specially treated to repel water (Advameg, 2017). O’Neil (2017) observed that
raincoats and rain jackets are usually made from waterproof or water-resistant
fabrics.

            On
the same study of O’Neil (2017), he claimed that Vinyl and plastic are commonly
used for the construction of children’s raincoats. Additionally, raincoats are
made out of all types of fabric whether it’d be nylon, plastic, etc. An
all-weather raincoat can be worn in any weather due to its removable lining.
Fold ups can basically be folded and are usually made of vinyl. Trench coats
are worn by both men and women, and are usually made of lightweight materials
like cotton/polyester fabric (Advameg, 2017). Lastly, the fabric of many
raincoats are made of a blend of two or more different materials like cotton,
polyester, nylon, wool and/or rayon.

            A
recent study that dwelled on the importance of raincoats is a study conducted
by Ling (2015) wherein she reported that tens of millions of people in East
Asia are in for a drenching. In such weather conditions, raincoats with
reflective tape is very important to ensure our safety. Ling (2015) also stated
that typhoon season makes it an ordeal for those people who still be asked to
go to companies. People who need to ride bicycles or walk to work may worry
about how to be rainproof and windproof in such a bad weather.

            Additionally,
Bern & Murphy (2010) claimed that when they asked the students on their
beliefs regarding if there were any main effects of the whole raincoat
programme, the main response of the schools was that their students likely had
an increased attendance report and were dry when there was rainfall. Although
one focus group believed that the raincoats contributed to removing some stress
from parents, the researches continued to see the effects of raincoats by
interviewing children. One child believed things were ‘actually quite better’,
but did not elaborate since receiving a raincoat. But, there was one unexpected
effect that did emerge in the parents’ responses: a minority suggested that
because their children liked the raincoats, they were more responsible and used
them more: makes them responsible for their gear, to look after it, put it in
the bags when not using or wearing it.

            As
a matter of fact, in a study by Rowen & Gagliardi (2010), the researchers
observed the properties of water-repellent fabrics. The study was made of the
water-repellent properties of 11 commercial raincoat and 4 military fabrics. Before
starting anything, Rowen & Gagliardi mentioned that we must, at the very
beginning, distinguish the difference between “waterproof” and
“water-repellant” textile surfaces. According to the researchers, a waterproof
fabric is one in which the pores, the open spaces between the warp and filling
yarns and between the fibers, are filled with appropriate substances, resulting
in a fabric having a continuous surface and a very low air permeability while a
water-repellent fabric is one in which the fibers are usually coated with a
hydrophobic type of compound, and the pores are not filled in the course of the
treatment. The results of the experimentation lead to the following conclusions
regarding the status of water repellency.

            There
is sufficient evidence to prove that raincoats can really keep you dry from
sudden rainfall due to all the materials that are available to be used and
certain fabrics that can be waterproof and/or water-repellent. Broudy (2015)
asserted that there is a raincoat that can keep you really dry, and that is the
Columbia OutDry EX Diamond Shell. The raincoat puts its waterproof breathable
membrane on the outside. Because the membrane is heat-fused with the polymer
and the inner fabric layer, it does go away with sweat-trapping glue.

CARS approach Move 2 (1 – 3)

            It
has been suggested that there isn’t a need to use raincoats. Thacker (2014),
presented that when you have a raincoat, you’ll miss out the amazing splashes
of water from the streets. Another is that when you’re using a raincoat, everyone
will come to know if you’re crying in rain as you are covered. However, these
studies have failed to recognize the importance of raincoats, not just to
regular individuals, but to the students whom usually get hit by sudden
rainfall and end up getting wet.

            Raincoats,
since the day it was invented, have been extensively studied mainly to repel
water during rainfall caused by the clouds, typhoons, etc. However, less
attention has been paid to inventing and creating a raincoat that can be easily
attached to any bag and could be used instantly when there’s a sudden rainfall
that is why this specific prototype will be able to help a lot of people, mostly
the students.

            In
spite of these early observations, the question remains. Will this raincoat be
able to deliver the functions that it’s supposed to give due to the lack of
resources, at the moment? Will it be able to repel water from entering the user’s
body and also the backpack fully like nothing happened? Hence, additional
studies on the specific material / fabric is needed in order to fully fulfil
the functions of this specific raincoat.

 

CARS approach Move 3

 

            The very purpose of this paper is to
be able to help those students who don’t have private transportation services
like having their own cars and just commuting going to school from home and
vice versa. It is also for those students who are living in places that are
always affected by typhoons, flash floods, and sudden rainfall. This research
also presents data on those students who go home with and without bags so that
the researchers would be able to know if the student would be able to use the
raincoat attached to the bag. 

There is a growing interest in finding a
way to counter climate change for everyone, especially for students, during
regular days or during calamities like typhoons in the Philippines. One
specific problem that is related to climate change is sudden rainfall.
According to the Philippine, Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (PAGASA), rainfall is the most important climatic element in the
Philippines. The mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to
4,064 millimeters annually. Clark (2011) reported that changes in rainfall and
other forms of precipitation will be one of the most critical factors
determining the overall impact of climate change. Rainfall is much more
difficult to predict than temperature but there are some statements that
scientists can make with confidence about the future. Overall, sudden rainfall
is something that should be issued as a serious matter because it greatly
affects everyone, mostly the students since it can happen anytime, anywhere and
could bring flash floods that could damage the entire community.

            A
huge number of students are affected to sudden rainfall, which has been a
problem ever since because not all students can afford paying for their
transportation services. Since the Philippines is a country that has a tropical
rainforest climate, meaning that the climate is very humid because of all the
rainfall, it is more prone to sudden rainfall which could happen anytime and
would have a sudden but heavy downpour on land. Calonzo (2009) described that
the rainfall brought by tropical storm Ondoy to Metro Manila and nearby areas
in a span of six hours on Saturday was the most in recorded history, surpassing
the previous record for the metropolis in 1967. Nathaniel Cruz, weather
services bureau head of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and
Astronomical Services Administration, told GMANews.TV that the total rainfall
from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Saturday surpassed the highest 24-hour rainfall that the
weather bureau recorded 42 years ago. This could be again a manifestation of
climate change. Due to climate change, we should expect more extreme weather
events like extreme rainfall, he said. Montenegro (2015) supports a study that
was published in the journal Climatic Change. The study, made by Jascha
Lehmann, Dim Coumou and Katja Frieler, has found that an increase in
record-breaking rainfall levels after 1980 can be related to rising global
temperatures. We show that over the last three decades the number of
record-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean, the
study said. In the case for students, most public schools that are experiencing
heavy rainfall would mean that they’d expect that the students wouldn’t come to
class anymore due to flooded areas that affect their way going to school and
vice versa, for the students who need to go home but can’t because they don’t have
the transportation to do this. This is really a problem that needs attention
and awareness because these are for the children and for the community.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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            Having
sudden rainfall is not directly linked to students, but due to this, students
have a hard time on the way to school or back home because they would get
caught by it and would eventually get wet even if they use an umbrella or a
jacket. One situation would be students who struggle to cross strong currents
as floodwaters rise at a residential area in Las Piñas last 2013. Another
similar situation that happened last August 20, 2013, wherein a passenger bus
commutes along a flooded highway as heavy rains pummel Manila. Taylor (2013)
observed that relentless monsoon rains and Tropical Storm Trami wreaked havoc
in the Philippines, causing at least ten deaths and severely flooding wide
swaths of the capital Manila. Flood-battered residents from coastal areas and
mountainous regions appealed for help, after days of some of the Philippines’
heaviest rains on record. Basa (2014) described how the Philippine Stock
Exchange (PSE) suspended trading over tropical storm Mario. Please be advised
that there will be no trading at the Philippine Stock Exchange and no clearing
and settlement at the Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines today,
September 19, due to the suspension of clearing and settlement operations in
the Philippine banking system, the PSE said in a statement. Knowing all these
show the importance and the impact of sudden rainfall in the Philippines, but
it also shows us that we could make an effort to at least counter them.

            Sudden
rainfall has become an important aspect on attributing to climate change. It
has also become a common problem but hasn’t been solved completely due to its
lack of awareness that it’s a major problem. Tarlach (2017) claimed that rain
reigns over us: It’s the main way liquid water, necessary for all earthly
life-forms, disperses across the planet. Dreher (2017) established that the
shape and color of clouds can help you predict rain. Dreher (2017) also
proposed that there’s a scientifically proven way to get less wet in the rain
which is running. CoolKidFacts (2016) also reported that water stays in some
places longer than others. A drop of water may spend over 3,000 years in the
ocean before moving on to another part of the water cycle. On average a drop of
water spends an average of 8 days in the atmosphere before falling back down to
Earth. Lastly, the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration observed that the mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies
from 965 to 4,064 millimeters annually.

            Sudden
rainfall should be given more attention now that the people know the damages it
could give to the entire community. There has been a lot of alternatives that
has been invented/created in order to cope with rainfall. In a study by
Contreras et.al (2013), they stated that In a tropical country such as the
Philippines, abundant rainfall is considered a water resource for development
and yet it is not fully used due to the seasonality of its occurrence.
Rainwater harvesting through small water impounding projects (SWIPs) addresses
the unbalanced rainfall distribution by collecting and storing direct rainfall
and surface runoff for future use. The United Nations Development Programme
also started the Project Climate Twin Phoenix, which aimed to assess the
disaster vulnerabilities of the affected areas of Regions 10 and 11 in Mindanao,
to geological, meteorological and meteorologically-induced hazards due to
climate change. The results will provide the basis for priority mitigation
actions like community- based and -managed early warning systems, and
integrated contingency planning and mobilization. In the aftermath of Typhoon
Bopha that hit the country in December 2012, the project extended its
assistance to the affected provinces of Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental in
Region 11, which was formalized in February 2013 through a Memorandum of
Understanding. The project also conducted a Training of Trainers on the Basics
of Climate and Disaster Risks, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk
Management as well as a Training of Trainers on Geographic Information System
for local partners.

            There
is a need to investigate on how people can be more aware of the effects of
sudden rainfall to the community and the environment, what could be a possible
counter to it and how to prepare for it. Milman (2015) reported that Haiyan
offered a case study on how climate change is a live issue for the Philippines.
The IPCC predicts that climate change is likely to cause tropical cyclones to
become more severe with greater wind speeds and more intense precipitation – a
nightmarish scenario for a country already battered by around 20 typhoons a
year. Aid agencies – Plan International, Save the Children, the Red Cross and
others – gathered under the UN’s cluster system, which groups charities
together to help in certain areas, such as shelter, health and education.
(Milman, 2015). The World Health Organization (WHO) stated preparedness as key.
WHO determined the typhoons’ immediate impact on the health sector to be low
with 30 health facilities damaged but functioning, however, other sectors,
especially livelihoods, are expected to have an important impact on the
affected population’s vulnerability to health impacts. For example, extensive
damages to crops at harvest time in regions already badly affected by the El
Niño phenomenon are expected to increase food insecurity through March 2016.

CARS approach Move 1B (1 – 6)

 

            A
considerable amount of literature has been published on the need to have
raincoats attached to backpacks. Raincoats are jackets made of fabric that is
specially treated to repel water (Advameg, 2017). O’Neil (2017) observed that
raincoats and rain jackets are usually made from waterproof or water-resistant
fabrics.

            On
the same study of O’Neil (2017), he claimed that Vinyl and plastic are commonly
used for the construction of children’s raincoats. Additionally, raincoats are
made out of all types of fabric whether it’d be nylon, plastic, etc. An
all-weather raincoat can be worn in any weather due to its removable lining.
Fold ups can basically be folded and are usually made of vinyl. Trench coats
are worn by both men and women, and are usually made of lightweight materials
like cotton/polyester fabric (Advameg, 2017). Lastly, the fabric of many
raincoats are made of a blend of two or more different materials like cotton,
polyester, nylon, wool and/or rayon.

            A
recent study that dwelled on the importance of raincoats is a study conducted
by Ling (2015) wherein she reported that tens of millions of people in East
Asia are in for a drenching. In such weather conditions, raincoats with
reflective tape is very important to ensure our safety. Ling (2015) also stated
that typhoon season makes it an ordeal for those people who still be asked to
go to companies. People who need to ride bicycles or walk to work may worry
about how to be rainproof and windproof in such a bad weather.

            Additionally,
Bern & Murphy (2010) claimed that when they asked the students on their
beliefs regarding if there were any main effects of the whole raincoat
programme, the main response of the schools was that their students likely had
an increased attendance report and were dry when there was rainfall. Although
one focus group believed that the raincoats contributed to removing some stress
from parents, the researches continued to see the effects of raincoats by
interviewing children. One child believed things were ‘actually quite better’,
but did not elaborate since receiving a raincoat. But, there was one unexpected
effect that did emerge in the parents’ responses: a minority suggested that
because their children liked the raincoats, they were more responsible and used
them more: makes them responsible for their gear, to look after it, put it in
the bags when not using or wearing it.

            As
a matter of fact, in a study by Rowen & Gagliardi (2010), the researchers
observed the properties of water-repellent fabrics. The study was made of the
water-repellent properties of 11 commercial raincoat and 4 military fabrics. Before
starting anything, Rowen & Gagliardi mentioned that we must, at the very
beginning, distinguish the difference between “waterproof” and
“water-repellant” textile surfaces. According to the researchers, a waterproof
fabric is one in which the pores, the open spaces between the warp and filling
yarns and between the fibers, are filled with appropriate substances, resulting
in a fabric having a continuous surface and a very low air permeability while a
water-repellent fabric is one in which the fibers are usually coated with a
hydrophobic type of compound, and the pores are not filled in the course of the
treatment. The results of the experimentation lead to the following conclusions
regarding the status of water repellency.

            There
is sufficient evidence to prove that raincoats can really keep you dry from
sudden rainfall due to all the materials that are available to be used and
certain fabrics that can be waterproof and/or water-repellent. Broudy (2015)
asserted that there is a raincoat that can keep you really dry, and that is the
Columbia OutDry EX Diamond Shell. The raincoat puts its waterproof breathable
membrane on the outside. Because the membrane is heat-fused with the polymer
and the inner fabric layer, it does go away with sweat-trapping glue.

CARS approach Move 2 (1 – 3)

            It
has been suggested that there isn’t a need to use raincoats. Thacker (2014),
presented that when you have a raincoat, you’ll miss out the amazing splashes
of water from the streets. Another is that when you’re using a raincoat, everyone
will come to know if you’re crying in rain as you are covered. However, these
studies have failed to recognize the importance of raincoats, not just to
regular individuals, but to the students whom usually get hit by sudden
rainfall and end up getting wet.

            Raincoats,
since the day it was invented, have been extensively studied mainly to repel
water during rainfall caused by the clouds, typhoons, etc. However, less
attention has been paid to inventing and creating a raincoat that can be easily
attached to any bag and could be used instantly when there’s a sudden rainfall
that is why this specific prototype will be able to help a lot of people, mostly
the students.

            In
spite of these early observations, the question remains. Will this raincoat be
able to deliver the functions that it’s supposed to give due to the lack of
resources, at the moment? Will it be able to repel water from entering the user’s
body and also the backpack fully like nothing happened? Hence, additional
studies on the specific material / fabric is needed in order to fully fulfil
the functions of this specific raincoat.

 

CARS approach Move 3

 

            The very purpose of this paper is to
be able to help those students who don’t have private transportation services
like having their own cars and just commuting going to school from home and
vice versa. It is also for those students who are living in places that are
always affected by typhoons, flash floods, and sudden rainfall. This research
also presents data on those students who go home with and without bags so that
the researchers would be able to know if the student would be able to use the
raincoat attached to the bag. 

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