There is a growing interest in finding away to counter climate change for everyone, especially for students, duringregular days or during calamities like typhoons in the Philippines.
Onespecific problem that is related to climate change is sudden rainfall.According to the Philippine, Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical ServicesAdministration (PAGASA), rainfall is the most important climatic element in thePhilippines. The mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to4,064 millimeters annually. Clark (2011) reported that changes in rainfall andother forms of precipitation will be one of the most critical factorsdetermining the overall impact of climate change. Rainfall is much moredifficult to predict than temperature but there are some statements thatscientists can make with confidence about the future. Overall, sudden rainfallis something that should be issued as a serious matter because it greatlyaffects everyone, mostly the students since it can happen anytime, anywhere andcould bring flash floods that could damage the entire community. Ahuge number of students are affected to sudden rainfall, which has been aproblem ever since because not all students can afford paying for theirtransportation services. Since the Philippines is a country that has a tropicalrainforest climate, meaning that the climate is very humid because of all therainfall, it is more prone to sudden rainfall which could happen anytime andwould have a sudden but heavy downpour on land.
Calonzo (2009) described thatthe rainfall brought by tropical storm Ondoy to Metro Manila and nearby areasin a span of six hours on Saturday was the most in recorded history, surpassingthe previous record for the metropolis in 1967. Nathaniel Cruz, weatherservices bureau head of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical andAstronomical Services Administration, told GMANews.TV that the total rainfallfrom 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Saturday surpassed the highest 24-hour rainfall that theweather bureau recorded 42 years ago. This could be again a manifestation ofclimate change. Due to climate change, we should expect more extreme weatherevents like extreme rainfall, he said. Montenegro (2015) supports a study thatwas published in the journal Climatic Change. The study, made by JaschaLehmann, Dim Coumou and Katja Frieler, has found that an increase inrecord-breaking rainfall levels after 1980 can be related to rising globaltemperatures. We show that over the last three decades the number ofrecord-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean, thestudy said. In the case for students, most public schools that are experiencingheavy rainfall would mean that they’d expect that the students wouldn’t come toclass anymore due to flooded areas that affect their way going to school andvice versa, for the students who need to go home but can’t because they don’t havethe transportation to do this.
This is really a problem that needs attentionand awareness because these are for the children and for the community. Havingsudden rainfall is not directly linked to students, but due to this, studentshave a hard time on the way to school or back home because they would getcaught by it and would eventually get wet even if they use an umbrella or ajacket. One situation would be students who struggle to cross strong currentsas floodwaters rise at a residential area in Las Piñas last 2013. Anothersimilar situation that happened last August 20, 2013, wherein a passenger buscommutes along a flooded highway as heavy rains pummel Manila. Taylor (2013)observed that relentless monsoon rains and Tropical Storm Trami wreaked havocin the Philippines, causing at least ten deaths and severely flooding wideswaths of the capital Manila. Flood-battered residents from coastal areas andmountainous regions appealed for help, after days of some of the Philippines’heaviest rains on record. Basa (2014) described how the Philippine StockExchange (PSE) suspended trading over tropical storm Mario. Please be advisedthat there will be no trading at the Philippine Stock Exchange and no clearingand settlement at the Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines today,September 19, due to the suspension of clearing and settlement operations inthe Philippine banking system, the PSE said in a statement.
Knowing all theseshow the importance and the impact of sudden rainfall in the Philippines, butit also shows us that we could make an effort to at least counter them. Suddenrainfall has become an important aspect on attributing to climate change. Ithas also become a common problem but hasn’t been solved completely due to itslack of awareness that it’s a major problem. Tarlach (2017) claimed that rainreigns over us: It’s the main way liquid water, necessary for all earthlylife-forms, disperses across the planet. Dreher (2017) established that theshape and color of clouds can help you predict rain. Dreher (2017) alsoproposed that there’s a scientifically proven way to get less wet in the rainwhich is running.
CoolKidFacts (2016) also reported that water stays in someplaces longer than others. A drop of water may spend over 3,000 years in theocean before moving on to another part of the water cycle. On average a drop ofwater spends an average of 8 days in the atmosphere before falling back down toEarth. Lastly, the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical ServicesAdministration observed that the mean annual rainfall of the Philippines variesfrom 965 to 4,064 millimeters annually. Suddenrainfall should be given more attention now that the people know the damages itcould give to the entire community. There has been a lot of alternatives thathas been invented/created in order to cope with rainfall. In a study byContreras et.
al (2013), they stated that In a tropical country such as thePhilippines, abundant rainfall is considered a water resource for developmentand yet it is not fully used due to the seasonality of its occurrence.Rainwater harvesting through small water impounding projects (SWIPs) addressesthe unbalanced rainfall distribution by collecting and storing direct rainfalland surface runoff for future use. The United Nations Development Programmealso started the Project Climate Twin Phoenix, which aimed to assess thedisaster vulnerabilities of the affected areas of Regions 10 and 11 in Mindanao,to geological, meteorological and meteorologically-induced hazards due toclimate change.
The results will provide the basis for priority mitigationactions like community- based and -managed early warning systems, andintegrated contingency planning and mobilization. In the aftermath of TyphoonBopha that hit the country in December 2012, the project extended itsassistance to the affected provinces of Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental inRegion 11, which was formalized in February 2013 through a Memorandum ofUnderstanding. The project also conducted a Training of Trainers on the Basicsof Climate and Disaster Risks, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster RiskManagement as well as a Training of Trainers on Geographic Information Systemfor local partners. Thereis a need to investigate on how people can be more aware of the effects ofsudden rainfall to the community and the environment, what could be a possiblecounter to it and how to prepare for it. Milman (2015) reported that Haiyanoffered a case study on how climate change is a live issue for the Philippines.
The IPCC predicts that climate change is likely to cause tropical cyclones tobecome more severe with greater wind speeds and more intense precipitation – anightmarish scenario for a country already battered by around 20 typhoons ayear. Aid agencies – Plan International, Save the Children, the Red Cross andothers – gathered under the UN’s cluster system, which groups charitiestogether to help in certain areas, such as shelter, health and education.(Milman, 2015). The World Health Organization (WHO) stated preparedness as key.WHO determined the typhoons’ immediate impact on the health sector to be lowwith 30 health facilities damaged but functioning, however, other sectors,especially livelihoods, are expected to have an important impact on theaffected population’s vulnerability to health impacts. For example, extensivedamages to crops at harvest time in regions already badly affected by the ElNiño phenomenon are expected to increase food insecurity through March 2016.
CARS approach Move 1B (1 – 6) Aconsiderable amount of literature has been published on the need to haveraincoats attached to backpacks. Raincoats are jackets made of fabric that isspecially treated to repel water (Advameg, 2017). O’Neil (2017) observed thatraincoats and rain jackets are usually made from waterproof or water-resistantfabrics. Onthe same study of O’Neil (2017), he claimed that Vinyl and plastic are commonlyused for the construction of children’s raincoats. Additionally, raincoats aremade out of all types of fabric whether it’d be nylon, plastic, etc. Anall-weather raincoat can be worn in any weather due to its removable lining.Fold ups can basically be folded and are usually made of vinyl. Trench coatsare worn by both men and women, and are usually made of lightweight materialslike cotton/polyester fabric (Advameg, 2017).
Lastly, the fabric of manyraincoats are made of a blend of two or more different materials like cotton,polyester, nylon, wool and/or rayon. Arecent study that dwelled on the importance of raincoats is a study conductedby Ling (2015) wherein she reported that tens of millions of people in EastAsia are in for a drenching. In such weather conditions, raincoats withreflective tape is very important to ensure our safety.
Ling (2015) also statedthat typhoon season makes it an ordeal for those people who still be asked togo to companies. People who need to ride bicycles or walk to work may worryabout how to be rainproof and windproof in such a bad weather. Additionally,Bern & Murphy (2010) claimed that when they asked the students on theirbeliefs regarding if there were any main effects of the whole raincoatprogramme, the main response of the schools was that their students likely hadan increased attendance report and were dry when there was rainfall. Althoughone focus group believed that the raincoats contributed to removing some stressfrom parents, the researches continued to see the effects of raincoats byinterviewing children. One child believed things were ‘actually quite better’,but did not elaborate since receiving a raincoat.
But, there was one unexpectedeffect that did emerge in the parents’ responses: a minority suggested thatbecause their children liked the raincoats, they were more responsible and usedthem more: makes them responsible for their gear, to look after it, put it inthe bags when not using or wearing it. Asa matter of fact, in a study by Rowen & Gagliardi (2010), the researchersobserved the properties of water-repellent fabrics. The study was made of thewater-repellent properties of 11 commercial raincoat and 4 military fabrics. Beforestarting anything, Rowen & Gagliardi mentioned that we must, at the verybeginning, distinguish the difference between “waterproof” and”water-repellant” textile surfaces. According to the researchers, a waterprooffabric is one in which the pores, the open spaces between the warp and fillingyarns and between the fibers, are filled with appropriate substances, resultingin a fabric having a continuous surface and a very low air permeability while awater-repellent fabric is one in which the fibers are usually coated with ahydrophobic type of compound, and the pores are not filled in the course of thetreatment. The results of the experimentation lead to the following conclusionsregarding the status of water repellency. Thereis sufficient evidence to prove that raincoats can really keep you dry fromsudden rainfall due to all the materials that are available to be used andcertain fabrics that can be waterproof and/or water-repellent. Broudy (2015)asserted that there is a raincoat that can keep you really dry, and that is theColumbia OutDry EX Diamond Shell.
The raincoat puts its waterproof breathablemembrane on the outside. Because the membrane is heat-fused with the polymerand the inner fabric layer, it does go away with sweat-trapping glue.CARS approach Move 2 (1 – 3) Ithas been suggested that there isn’t a need to use raincoats. Thacker (2014),presented that when you have a raincoat, you’ll miss out the amazing splashesof water from the streets.
Another is that when you’re using a raincoat, everyonewill come to know if you’re crying in rain as you are covered. However, thesestudies have failed to recognize the importance of raincoats, not just toregular individuals, but to the students whom usually get hit by suddenrainfall and end up getting wet. Raincoats,since the day it was invented, have been extensively studied mainly to repelwater during rainfall caused by the clouds, typhoons, etc. However, lessattention has been paid to inventing and creating a raincoat that can be easilyattached to any bag and could be used instantly when there’s a sudden rainfallthat is why this specific prototype will be able to help a lot of people, mostlythe students. Inspite of these early observations, the question remains. Will this raincoat beable to deliver the functions that it’s supposed to give due to the lack ofresources, at the moment? Will it be able to repel water from entering the user’sbody and also the backpack fully like nothing happened? Hence, additionalstudies on the specific material / fabric is needed in order to fully fulfilthe functions of this specific raincoat.
CARS approach Move 3 The very purpose of this paper is tobe able to help those students who don’t have private transportation serviceslike having their own cars and just commuting going to school from home andvice versa. It is also for those students who are living in places that arealways affected by typhoons, flash floods, and sudden rainfall. This researchalso presents data on those students who go home with and without bags so thatthe researchers would be able to know if the student would be able to use theraincoat attached to the bag.