Theoretical models that under pin health promotion andhealth education.This essay will attempt to explain, the health belief modeland the social identity theory, also it will look at the stages around thechange model.Social identity theory:(britannica.com. 19 Jan.
2018.)The Social IdentityTheory was developed to explain how individuals create and define their “place”in society.”Tajfel and Turner’s social identitytheory says that an individuals perception of themselves and others is takenfrom the group or groups that they belong to. Individuals do not have specific behavioural or personal characteristics thatthey are reconsider or categorised by; this is determined by the groups thereare in or many traits or actions they have.
A person will act differentlydepending on the social context they are in or are used to; this could beanything from their friends at home, friends at schooling, work, hobbies, gymor a team they are part of and many more, in each situation individuals actdifferently depending on what they think Is acceptable or will make them morelikeable.When aperson becomes conscious of themselves as part of a group, that is called theiringroup. All groups that a person does not consciously belong to are their outgroups.We perceive it then as us instead of them; this changes the situation in ourminds when it comes to our ingroups and their outgroups.Tajfel (1979) “suggested that groups (e.
g. social class, family,football team etc.) which people belonged to be an important source of prideand self-esteem.
Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense ofbelonging to the social world.”There are three processes that make up this theory:Categorisation;This is the tendency individuals have where they perceive themselves and othersin to certain social categories. People categorize to try and understandand identify themselves and others. Some examples of social categories includeblack, white, working class, student, Republican, and Democrat. By knowing, wecan understand things clearer, and we can define appropriate behaviouraccording to the groups that we and others belong to. An individual can belongto several groups at the same time. Using this method means a campaign canbe made for a wide target audience.
It can be made relatable to manyindividuals and groups at the same time as certain points from each group canbe brought out in diverse ways. (Age-of-the-sage.org, 2018)Comparison;individuals determine the value or social standing of this group or anindividual in that group. This helps explainprejudice and discrimination, since a group will tend to view members of competinggroups negatively to increase self-esteem. After we have ourgroups and are in categories, we then look at these groups differently and thenjudge other groups we are not categorised with and compare our groups withothers. To make sure we keep self-esteem, a group and its intermediate memberswill compare themselves and their associated group and favour their groupagainst any other. This explains some discrimination.
Self-concept ofourselves or others become a smoke screen effect when we take in to account theperceptions of others from the group we are in. self- esteem and what we thinkof another person or group is enhanced or detracted by perceptions of how inand out groups behave or are supposed to perform/act in society.Therefore, this theory is a good oneto follow when creating a campaign or trying to promote a campaign; this theorygives them a chance to have many strategies within a campaign.
(Learning Theories, 2018)Identification;individualsgenerally don’t perceive social situations as detached observers. It is someindividuals own perception of people based on their own sense of who they areand how they relate to other individuals and more so from the way others andgroups around them see them or act.A group adopt the identityin which they belong, and we act in ways that we perceive members of that groupact.
For example, if you identify as a footballer, you will most likely behavewithin the norms of that group. (Simplypsychology.org,2018). As a consequence ofyour identification with a group, you will develop emotional significance tothat identification, and your self-esteem will be dependent on it.
This can be taken in to account whencreating a campaign and keeping it relevant. Using the social identity theorymeans we can use the way an individual sees themselves and show how others seethem too; this is usually different in both cases so showing any anxiety ordepression is more than likely unnecessary. For example if someone thinks theyare less than someone else based on the amount of friends they have they aremore likely to have anxiety but when they see that a celebrity deals withanxiety and depression and also doesn’t have many actual friend, they willrealise they are not alone.——–The health belief model (HBM) was firstdeveloped in the 1950s by social psychologists Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels working in theU.
S. Public Health Services.(Universiteit Twente, 2018)The Health Belief Model (HBM) is apsychological model thatattempts to explain and predict healthbehaviours. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The HBM hasbeen adapted to explore a variety of long- and short-term health behaviours.The HBM assumes thatpeople are largely rational in their thoughts and actions, meaning this was acognitive approach.
There are 6stages of the health belief model; perceived susceptibility (vulnerability);perceived severity; perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues of action andself-efficiency. Perceivedsusceptibility; we use this in relation to health promotions by conducting casestudies, using and creating statistics means we can make it relatable. Perceivedsusceptibility,also called perceived vulnerability,refers to one’s perception ofthe risk or the chances of contracting a health disease or condition (Witte,1992). It also can include estimates of re-susceptibility and susceptibility to illness ingeneral (Rosenstock, Strecher, & Becker, 1994). Perceivedseverity; this refersto the degree people deem a disease or condition is serious.
This includes how people perceive negative consequences associatedwith an event or outcome.Perceivedbenefits; this is when some individual weighs up the benefits and negatives. Itrefers to the perception of the positive consequences that are caused by aspecific action.
In medicine, the term perceived benefit is frequently used toexplain an individual’s motives of performing a behaviour after treatment. Attemptsare made by many to measure positive perceptions because this is what drives anindividual’s cognition in relation to acceptability, motives and attitudestoward such behaviours.Perceivedbarriers; this is when someone would not do something because in their headthey do not feel they will stick to this, so they don’t want to start and thenit be negative when they do stop. This is measured with case studies andstatistics. Perceived barriers are an individual’s assessment of the possibleobstacles that could change the behaviour they want to. The perceived benefitswill always have to be greater than the barrier against why we want to change.
For example if someone is ill as knows a certain behavioural change wouldbenefit this, barriers couldstill prevent the change in the health-promoting behaviour. Cues of action; thisis when action is taken, if someone with an illness was seen then people arelikely to get the help they need this is called a trigger. This is used as ashock tactic for many reason as it works very well; this is necessary forprompting engagement in health-promoting behaviours. Self-efficiency; thisrelates to the self-belief one has in themselves, how effective one is in doingit. Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s perception of his or her competenceto successfully perform a behaviour.