The Urban FrontierThe population of America doubled from 1870 to 1900 as the population in the cities tripled.Cities grew up and out – cities built skyscrapers growing upwards with Louis Sullivan working on perfecting skyscrapers architecture first skyscraper was seen in 1855 in Chicago.The cities grew out as it went from being small and compact to bigger and wider places where people now traveled by electric trolleys.City life grew more alluring and comfortable as Electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones developed.Department stores like Macy’s, New York and Marsha Field’s grew offering more jobs attracting middle-class shoppers.With the growing urbanizing came more pollution – cities produced lots of trashFarmers recycled and fed leftovers to animals while city residents used new developing mail-order houses – this made shopping cheap and easy resulting in people throw away things that did not please them.
There were more criminals in the cities, furthermore, water was impure, garbage were not collected regularly, people were not hygienic resulting in cities becoming more smelly and unsanitary.Dumbbell tenements – many people were stuffed in small cramped tenements which was dark, cramped, and had little to no sanitation and ventilation.Old Immigration – immigrants that came from the British Islands, western Europe, Germany and Scandinavia till the 1880s who were literate and came with something to offer.
Immigrants who migrated to escape poor condition in their country. the Baltic and Slavic people of southeastern Europe who immigrated during 1880s and 1890s – mostly illiterateEuropeans immigrated to America because of the lack of jobs due to the industrialization and simply because there was no room in EuropeAmerica provided the freedom and opportunities other European countries lacked making it a bragging factor.Although immigrants moved to America because it was “better than their country,” they still tried their best to keep their costumes and heritage alive.
Many immigrants moved back to Europe after working in the United States. But the new generation, children of the immigrants this were more affected by American life.The federal government did not help the new immigrants to a great extent so the immigrants supported bosses like Boss Tweed and their pools in exchange for jobs and shelter. But immigrants started getting more support over a period of timeJane Addams – founded Hull House in 1889 where she taught children and adults skills and knowledge needed to survive and succeed in America.
Hull House – settlement house in New York that opened in 1893 included Lillian Wald’s Henry Street SettlementWomen like Florence Kelley fought for women’s rights, protection and for the protection of child workers through settlement houses which became a center for women’s activism and reformWith the growing industries and urbanization, women got more work opportunities outside of home where they could earn money and support themselves better, This further halted the population as single women now worked instead of getting married and having children. With the growing immigration in the 1800s, the nativism and anti-foreignism of the 1840s and 1850s returned as Americans looked down on the new immigrants and were afraid of a mixed race and that the mixing of blood would ruin the Anglo-Saxon races and create inferior offspring.With the new immigration, America moved further west and captures lands of the natives and so the native Americans blamed immigrants for the advancement of the urban government which was technically responsible for their lost land and homes. The old immigrants also disliked the new immigrants, they were not very welcoming which is quite ironic as they seemed to have forgotten the situation and struggles they faced when they first moved to the states.Furthermore, the trade unions did not like the new immigrants since they were willingness to work for super-low wages which made the unions less valuable as these unskilled workers were easily replaceable and thus made the organization less impactful.There were new formations of anti-foreign organizations like the American Protective Association (APA)These organizations rose and went against new immigrants and labor union leaders tried their hardest to stop new immigrationanother reason unions didn’t like immigrants was because they were used as strikebreakers.Congress passed its first restrictive law against immigration in 1882it banned paupers, criminals, and convicts from coming to the United States