The unemployment among graduates in Malaysia
The expanding rate of jobless graduates is one of the issues that triggers world’s worries recently. Development of a nation can be found if joblessness is low. Be that as it may, a nation with a high joblessness rate implies the utilization of HR don’t completely use. The jobless can occurs for short or long haul. Its a normal procedures that somebody graduates move starting with one job to another or movement from school to the job market is just legitimate on short term unemployment. Then, new graduates entered the workforce and are not beneficially utilized by various reasons is long term unemployment.
Based from resource of job vacancies and job placement in Peninsular Malaysia in 2012, it is revealed that job vacancies are expanding from year to year. However, these job vacancies are filled by only a part of the workers. This shows that the unemployment issue is happened not because of the lack of job opportunities instead it happens because of other factors such as the low quality of a graduate. Despite the fact that the joblessness rate in Malaysia is viewed as low when contrasted with nations like the United States and different nations in Europe, it’s anything but an issue to be disregarded.
The economies of a developing country like Malaysia are directly connected with the rate of unemployment. Our country is experiencing a financial crisis in 1997 has recorded a high unemployment rate of 2.5% and it can be controlled. The unemployment trend continued from 1997 to 2010 so that Malaysia recovered from the financial crisis and the unemployment rate was successfully maintained at less than 4%.
According to Bank Negara Malaysia’s 2016 annual report, the unemployment rate among youths increase 1.2% from an estimated 9.5% to 10.7% in 2015. In comparison, the national unemployment rate went up by only 0.2% from 2.9% to 3.1%.
The Human Resource Ministry has mentioned that nearly half a million people are unemployed and out of that, 200,000 are youths, which means about more than quater of the unemployment comes from youths. (Professor Dr Zakaria,2017)
From the observation status of graduates of higher learning institutions after six month of graduation to ascertain whether they have started working, or continuing their studies, or are still looking for employment. Among of the 273,373 graduates in 2015 from public and private universities, university colleges, polytechnics, and community colleges, a large number hold Bachelor’s Degree and Diploma, 45% and 43% of all graduates, respectively. Among all graduates, 53% were reported to have started working, 18% chose to pursue further studies, and 24% of graduates were still unemployed. Bachelor’s degree-holders recorded the highest unemployment rate amongst graduates of all qualifications at 27.9%
One of the components that add to the unemployment issue among the Malaysian graduates is the nature of the graduates.(Rahmah, 2011) There are businesses in the business, who gave negative remarks on the graduates and said that the graduates don’t have the appropriate attitudes and capabilities, which address the issues of the need in business industry. Furthermore, the graduates are weak in the part of employbility abilities and don’t show a good working performance. An study by Central Bank of Malaysia (2002) found that the Malaysian graduates are less talented when contrasted with the global graduates. The abilities include technical skills, critical thinking abilities and communication skills, particularly in English dialect.
The ten essential weaknesses of Malaysian graduates are in the aspect of management, critical thinking, communication, leadership, innovative, basic reasoning, proactive, self-confidence and interaction skills.(Ranjit, 2009) These viewpoints lead to the difficulties for the graduates in acquire a jobs, which meet their capabilities. Also, other factors that lead to the unemployment problem among the graduates are a graduates attributes, lack of the relationship between educational institutions and the industry, lack of training for work preparation, fast increment of the population rate and educational development, economic recession, quality of education, capability of graduates, and the graduates’ abilities and identities. (Nasruddin, 2011)
As for now, a good academic achievement is no longer a guarantee for the Malaysian graduates to get a job (Noor Azina, 2011). It is a advantage for the graduates but it is not a guarantee for them to be given jobs and it also does not show that the graduates are able to conduct the tasks given by the employers. Since there is a major gap between the quality levels of the Malaysian graduates with the international standard, this issue needs to be taken care in order to ensure that our nation has talented and great graduates.
For recommendation, as a Malaysian we need to be aware and care about the unemployment rate in Malaysia. We need to study the effectiveness of the curriculum system and find ways to avoid the mismatch between the number of graduates and employment opportunities available. It is because growing population in Malaysia resulting in the problems of the rising cost of living, unemployment and house ownership. (Dato Seri Adnan Yaacob, 2017). By reviewing the policy, we can make an improvement to reduce the unemployment rate among graduate students.
The attitude of graduates also need to be taking care, they need to think professionally and not being negative about something. As a process of finding a variety of experiences ranging from a subordinate management enable graduates to learn basic things that you want to venture into the field. In addition, graduates also need to improve communication skills, especially fluency in English and a variety of skills Soft Skills. Graduates need to take the initiative to learn various skills Soft Skills that are not taught directly in the school. Self-confident attitude will gain knowledge and skills of graduates into a work area. Through the experience gained graduates need to think solving a problem efficiently and increase productivity. The government should raise the level of education and also continue to promote the importance of English among graduates.
A good quality of education is among the factors that affect the effectiveness of an educational institution are leadership, quality of the curriculum, classroom environment, achievement-oriented, effective learning time, structured teaching and recognition of a success. Findings of the study show that the majority of respondents agreed that the quality of education affect the unemployment problem among Malaysian graduates. Improvement in the curriculum by including additional skills for the graduates, create links with the industry so that the industry can provide job opportunities for the graduates.” (Aminah, 2014). Every developed curriculum should meet the requirements and in line with the needs of the industry. It needs to be based work-based learning “. (Nora, 2016). Hence, the government should make the curriculum gives less exposure to the real working environment and not accordance with current developments.
Next, the graduates need to ensure they have fulfill the graduates attributes that been require in organization. Employability skills and technical skill are skills that should be achieved by graduates, as it the important criteria that can help them to get jobs. From the investigation are rotated on, the technical and employability skills among the graduates are turned into the factor for the unemployment issue. Through the survey, it is shows that most of the respondents occured that a large portion of the graduates having issues in applying what they learned at the educational institution with the working places. Plus, the greater part of the graduates are having issues from the part of employability skills. This issue includes problem in the communication skill particularly in English language, the graduates are not very disciplined and don’t have the leadership skills.
Deputy Minister of Human Resources, Datuk Abdul Rahman Bakar, in like manner said that the guideline factor to the joblessness issue among graduates is the failure to guarantee educational syllabus or curriculum consistent with the matters required in the job market (Utusan Malaysia, eighteenth May 2005).The function of universities in providing curriculum and components of educational field are not in line with the required workplace skills. It makes troubles among the graduates to get a jobs, which match their skills and qualification. This likewise make an issue, in which graduates are not ready to actualize what they have learned at the educational instituition in their working field.
Another solutions is a important feature of the employment flow is to create more jobs by promoting the creative economy and reducing working hours. The Malaysian government should also strives to create high-quality part-time jobs and prepare Malaysian training programmes in order to enhance the employability of the economically inactive population, especially young people and women. Enhancing the nature of employments is as important as creating job. We are actualizing approach measures to improve working conditions for non-regular workers and to limit the gap between employees of primary workers and subcontractors.
One of the strategy of government todays are by acknowledge people about SL1M program. SL1M is one of the programs under 1Malaysia Concept that can be said as successful program because that helps government in overcoming the issue of unemployment in Malaysia. Through responds, 75% of trainees that joined this program managed to secure their job because they are given an opportunity to continue their services with the company that joined the SL1M program. This benefited the trainees as well as employer because they don’t have to spend more time and money to have another training session with new workers because they did while them in SL1M. So, indirectly this effort can assist government in eradicating numbers of unemployment especially among youth in Malaysia.
For example, since the launch of the 1Malaysia Training Scheme (SL1M) in 2011, more than 97,000 graduates have attending and found jobs after they attended job training and improved their communication skills. Through SL1M, fresh graduates learn to build their integrity, be competitive and responsible in implementing tasks given by their employers. Another training programme that graduate can follow is the Graduate Career Accelerated Programme (GCAP), a six-week training programme, sponsored by the government. GCAP, which aims to improve the employability of unemployed graduates, is a skills upgrading training programme designed to transform graduates into highly-employable executives for the service industry. GCAP is sponsored by Talent Corp under the Prime Minister’s Department, managed by My Partners Sdn Bhd and designed and delivered by Scicom Education Group. The programme is conducted in English, with special emphasis on improving graduates’ oral skills. After completing the programme, graduates are awarded certicates and referred to companies for possible employment.
Lastly, Malaysian should take a great step to counter the problem by not being to choosy in choosing a job. This can give an advantage not only for themselves but also the economy of Malaysia.
Effective skills training will produce graduates who are educated and skillful before entering the working field. Besides, it will also produce graduates with a good working ethics, proactive and able to solve problems related to the work. A graduate is selected to fulfill a post because the employer believes that the individual has a better knowledge and working skills as compared to other candidates. There are three primary strategies to construct an integrated human workforce, which are by restructuring the educational system in order to increase the students’ achievements, increasing the graduates’ skills in order to increase the marketability of the graduates, and restructuring the labour market system in order to develop Malaysia as a high-income nation.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bank Negara Malaysia. (n.d.). Youth Unemployment in Malaysia: Developments and Policy Considerations.
Enhancing employability: Programmes, initiatives to help unemployed, fresh graduates. (2017, January 15). Retrieved from nst online: https://www.nst.com.my/news/2017/01/204393/enhancing-employability-programmes-initiatives-help-unemployed-fresh-graduates
Gaining Self-Confidence through SL1M Increases Employability. (2013, April 13). Retrieved from Career Guide: http://mystarjob.com/articles/story.aspx?file=/2013/4/13/mystarjob_careerguide/12918067;sec=mystarjob_careerguide
SL1M Helps Graduates Without Experience. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from Malayasian digest: http://malaysiandigest.com/news/672048-sl1m-helps-graduates-without-experience.html
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Unemployment and underemployment among our youth. (2018, January 25). Retrieved from malaysiakini: https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/409988
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