The purpose of this research is tocontribute to and expand upon this foundation in actor-based justice researchby further examining differences in perceptionbetween supervisors and subordinates in order to gain a better and fullunderstanding of what justice means in the eye of today’s employees.It is very important to understand the actors perceptions in thisframework because their decisions directly affect the recipients (employees)attitudes and behaviours .
Two recent articles (Colquitt & Paddock, 2009;Scott, Garza, Conlon, & Kim, 2014), have placed a foundation for organisational justice research withregards to actors in terms of introducing a model for understanding justicerule adherence and violations; Both articles noted that future research needsto examine whether supervisors perceiveorganisational justice differently than their subordinates, the extent to ofthese differences, and the impact on employee outcomes of these differences inorganisational justice perceptions.Althoughorganisational justice has received significant attention, to date there hasbeen limited research focused on the actor’s side, that is,manager/supervisors’ perceptions of justice. Only few studies have examinedemployee and manager’s perceptions of organisational justice. Most of theresearch has focused on how employees view and react to a manager’s or acompany’s actions. All employees likely make evaluations on whether or not theworkplace is treating them fairly. Furthermore, these evaluations may influencecompanies tremendously, as meta-analyses have consistently linked justice tomany important organizational outcomes, such as task performance,organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs),and organizational commitment (Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng,2001; Colquitt et al., 2013).
Consequently, workers who view their workplacesas unfair contribute less to their success. Therefore; having positive subordinate-supervisor working relationshipsallow organisations to reach their goals easily. The success of theserelationships is based on the way that subordinates perceive their supervisors’actions whilst working (Tsui& O’Reilly, 1989). Thus, it is important tounderstand how do actors perceive justice as their decisions tie into subordinatesattitudes and behaviuors which affect the organization in which they all work(Cohen-Charash&Spector, 2001). Increasing globalisation ofbusiness has required organisations to more effectively manage their employees(Bal, Buzkort,2014).
Organisational justice has been associated with bothemployee and organisational outcomes (Colquitt,2013) and part of thismanagement requirement; Colquitt et al (2001) indicated that justice dimensions( i.e. distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice ) have been found to be important determinantsand predictors of several outcomes at work such as organisational commitment,OCB, job satisfaction and employee turnover intention.As the pace of industry and organisations has rapidly increased inresponse to changing markets and business expansions, the role of employees’contributions has become more important. Organisations have a responsibility tooffer a suitable and fair environment for employees participation in order toincrease performance and meet demands in this global competitive market. 2.1Introduction1.
Backgroundand Literature Review This research study will provide a detailed review and analysis ofthe conceptualisation of organisational justice over the last decades; takinginto consideration how justice factors, measurement scales, working experiencesand perceptions have changed over this long period of time, in order to gain abetter understanding of what organizational justice means in the eye of today’ssupervisors-subordinates and examining potential differences in their perceptions. In the past three decades, organisationalbehaviour literature has focused considerable attention on the topic oforganisational justice. Scholars have developed theories to explore perceptionsof justice at the workplace, including a number of conceptual and theoreticalmodels. However, it’s argued that researchers have not examinedthe full scope ofhow employees fully experience justice at the workplace today as the concept ofjustice is based on observations that preexist the 21st century workplace anddoesn’t fit the modern workplace today. Furthermore, it is argued that organisational justice researchhas not fully answered how justice actors (supervisors) perceive justice at theworkplace As the majority of studies have been focused on howrecipients(subordinates) of justice react.