The second analogyis the divided

The second analogyis the divided line analogy. This is analogy lets Plato divide knowledge intotwo categories with two sub categories each. Bottom half is about the sensible,physical, visible realm.

It includes belief, faith, art and opinion. The upperhalf is about the eternal and unchanging intelligent realm. The first part ofthe bottom half is the eikasi or imagination or fantasy. At the bottom lies theshadows.

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They are colorless replicas of an objects shape. Above this are thereflection. They have both color and shape, but they are only two dimensional.The upper part of the bottom half is the pistis or belief, faith, conviction. Thisis the sub-category that include believes in this realm. Artifacts are thefirst things here. They are the artistic replicas of the physical objects orthings.

Above these lie the natural objects and members of the physical world.Like everything in this realm, they, too, are subject to change and corruption,they can die or be destroyed or rot away. Above them is the upper half. Thefirst sub-category is dianoia or thoughts or mathematical knowledge/reasoning.These include mathematical and geometrical objects and these fields themselvesand science.

These field is filled with geometrical objects, numbers, laws anduniversals. The problem here is that these fields axioms. These are unprovenunjustified assumption they accept as true.

Their definitions, demonstrations,proofs are all faulty as they themselves are based on axioms which are in turnmost likely based on some other axioms. This can go ad infinitum. The highestlevel is the noesis or understanding, dialectical reasoning. This is the placeof forms. This is the home of dialectics.

Dialectics is free of the problems ofthinking. The hypothesis we make here are not axiomatic. Their use istemporary. We use them like stepping stone to jump in any direction we want,question everything we want, even turn the arrow upon itself, e.

g. philosophyquestioning what philosophy is, and reach the first principle of everything.Plato, together with the sun analogy, will use this analogy for the last one aswell. 

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