The Korean peninsula were Japanese imperial subjects. In

The present essay is about the Koreans in Japan, but
not in general sense, if not in order to attend the guidelines, the essay will
be about the term “?????”,
term that in the next paragraph, it will establish, which is his nature and
objective of this essay. 

The Korean People currently constitute the second
largest ethnic minority in Japan following Chinese, the majority of Koreans in
Japan are Zainichi Koreans (?????),
are the permanent ethnic Korean residents of Japan, the term “?????”, it is not refers
at all population of Koreans in japan, if not only the Korean residents of
Japan who trace their roots to Korea
under Japanese rule (The Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived
Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945,
Japanese rule of Korea was the outcome process that began with the Japan-Korea
Treaty of 1876.), distinguishing them from later wave of
Korean migrants who came mostly in the 1980`s, and from pre-modern immigrants
dating back to antiquity. The term refers in specific sense to almost always,
by ethnic Japanese and ethnic Koreans alike, to a population of colonial-era
migrants from the Korean peninsula that settled in the Japanese archipelago and
their descendants. (Lie 2008, 8)

Before to start, we should establish the background
respect the history between the Japanese and the japanese-korean, ontologically
speaking, Zainichi should somehow not exist. Reality is more complicated,
confusing, confounding. Consider only the basic facts of nationality and name. During
the colonial period (1910 –1945), Koreans living on both the Japanese archipelago
and the Korean peninsula were Japanese imperial subjects. In spite of colonial
racism, Japanese law and official discourse decreed ethnic, Koreans as Japanese
nationals and the Emperor’s children. The 1952 San Francisco Peace Treaty
restored Japanese sovereignty but rescinded Japanese citizenship for ethnic
Koreans remaining in Japan. (Lie 2008, 10)

Since the end of the war in Korea (1953) until recent
times, we can see the different terms that the Japanese people have used to
refer the Japanese-Korean, with the political division in the peninsula of
Korea, it was become more difficult refer in one way or in other to this
segment, terms as ???,
to refer the north Korean people, ??? for Koreans
affiliated with North Korea, ????????
in the 1950`s this term reflected in part the population`s overwhelming
allegiance to North Korea, ??? sometimes called “republic”,??
to South Koreans, the normative nomenclature in the 1970s and 1980s for the
totality of ethnic Koreans in Japan was the rather cumbersome ?????,
???, (resident
South Koreans and North Koreans in Japan) though those strongly allied with one
of the two Koreas would prefer either????????
or  ????????, when NHK aired a
course on the Korean language in 1984, it avoided the two terms and instead
opted for han’gul (chung 2010, 40), in the 80`s some people used the term in
English Korean to neutralize the split between the two Koreas. The ideology of
Japanese cultural and ethnic homogeneity had effectively barred the
plausibility in Japan of the term Korean Japanese.

How we can see the term used to refer at this segment
of population have been very different in the past, however, my essay is not
about the history of this term or about the Japanese-Korean in japan through
the history, if not, it is about the current situation of this segment of population
in Japan and his Social Conditions and Legal Conditions in the present, so with
this established is the moment to make one understanding and conscious about
this segment of population.  


Japan; Despite the ubiquity of ethnic Koreans in postwar
Japanese life, many Japanese almost instinctively denied their legitimacy and
at times their very presence. Yet this persistent repression of ethnic
existence faces the recalcitrant reality of a multiethnic Japan. (Lie 2008, 20)

If we see the history of japan trough the time, since
the modern Japanese state conquered Hokkaido and its indigenous Ainu, in the
1870 Ryukyu or Okinawa, Qing and Tokugawa, it was absorbed for Japanese Empire,
later Taiwan 1895, also annexed Korea, Manchuria and other parts of China, not
only the territory of Japan expand if not the japan as country became
irreducibly in one multiethnic country.

Population in Japan; historically the Koreans in japan had
been discriminated and suffered racism, since the Meiji Restauration only
several thousand of Koreans were in the main Japanese islands, after that in
1920`s the next cause of more presence of Korean in Japan was the labor
Shortage, in this period usually referred to the Korean population how inland
or naichi, of course the majority of Korean in the prewar in Japan were
farmers, after that in the wartimes, the ethnic Koreans worked in factories and
mines, also the women into ammunition, textile and other factories, during the
war 239,000 Koreans suffered  injuries
and death, and during the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima 30,000 ethnic
Koreans died, of course the ethnic Koreans were not quiet and calm people, if
not there are in the history numerous cases of uprising and struggle against
the Japanese.

With these different points, we have tried gave a
brief explanation about which is the history between the Japanese and the
ethnic Koreans, but now we need see the current situation or at least in the
last century, what is the situation of the????? in japan now.

Generation Vs New Generation; what is the true
situation now in japan respect the ?????,
it is true that this question only belongs to old generations, or for other
side the boom of Korean culture in japan through the media, and the
inter-marriage between resident Koreans and native Japanese is now very common,
and it is commonly said that the youngest Japanese do not really care if their
prospective spouse is a ?????.
If opposition comes at all it is usually from an older generation who still
feel the legacy and history. There are still some historical issues that refuse
to go away and these remain controversial issue.

Condition; ?????are
customarily distinguished from newcomers by both Japanese society and the
Japanese state. One may wonder why old-comers who have been in Japan for more
than 50 years are still called “temporary” residents.  This term reflects
the desire of many Koreans to someday return to their mother country, especially
after World War II, when the Allied Powers defeated Japan, liberated Koreans in
Japan had a strong desire to go back to Korea.  However, those ambitions
faded over time.  ?????,
now in their fourth generation, are permanent residents of Japan, and many of
them no longer have a desire to go back.  Despite this, the term has
survived, reflecting the reality of institutional discrimination by the
Japanese state and Japanese society. (Suzuki 2005, 2)

Condition; The nationality of first generation?????, changed several
times over a relatively short period of time.  First, prior to Japan’s
colonization of Korea, all people lived on the Korean peninsula shared Korean
nationality.  When Korea became part of Japan in 1910, all Koreans became
subjects of the Japanese emperor.  In 1952, when the San Francisco Peace
Treaty took effect, ?????
lost their Japanese nationality, and those who could not or did not go back to
the Korean peninsula became stateless.  As foreigners, they were allowed
to apply for citizenship via the naturalization process.  However, due to
widespread discrimination against Koreans in Japan, this has proven very
difficult for many?????. 
Despite stringent naturalization criteria for?????, the number of naturalized?????, has gradually
increased since the 1990s. (Chung 2010, 65)

did not have a nationality until at least 1965 when Japan and South Korea
normalized diplomatic relations.  ?????,
who pledged political allegiance to South Korea, regardless of their
geographical origins in the North or South, obtained South Korean
nationality.  ?????
who have geographical origins in the North and have neither pledged allegiance
to the South nor have not yet become naturalized Japanese citizens have no
nationality, since the Japanese government has yet to establish diplomatic
relations with North Korea.  These people, though they do not have a legal
nationality, consider themselves to be overseas North Koreans.  Currently,
both North and South?????
have gained legal status as special permanent residents of Japan, which was
also a product of the Japan-ROK diplomatic agreement (Japan – Republic of Korea

Since establishing diplomatic relations with South
Korea in 1965, the Japanese government has taken some steps to further
integrate????? into Japanese
political and social life.  In the late 1970s, the Japanese government
increased????? access to social
security benefits, and in 1982, the government granted permanent resident
status to those Koreans (and their children) who had established residence in
Japan before the end of World War II.  Nearly a decade later, the
government extended this right to third generation Koreans in Japan.  Most
recently, in 1993, the government halted the practice of fingerprinting Koreans
and other permanent residents during alien registration procedures. (Suzuki
2005, 3)  

of Identity Problems; we can see that the identity problems
inside of the ????? are present, but
the if we see through the history since 1952 until the present many things about
this search of identity for the ?????
have changed, the ideas of the first and second generation in comparison that
the fourth and fifth generation there are very different and antagonist, the
first and second generation considered that they had been strongly tied to
their homeland, but what happen with the change of the ideas since the first
generation until the most recent generation, we can attribute this change some
events happened in the history, the first change occurred during the Cold War,
when the relationship became entangled in the international stage with the
separation of the Korean peninsula into North and South, the second change
occurred with the establishement of the organizations as Soren in 1945, is
associated with the North and Mindan, formed in 1946, is closely tied to the
South. (Htun, Tin Tin 2012, 15)

These two organizations began s for Koreans living in
Japan quickly became political outlets for the two competing regimes on the
Korean peninsula.  These organizations
also have a social function as providers of social capital among members
(financial support, ethnic schools, assistance in finding jobs, etc.) and as
suppressors of assimilation into Japanese society.  

The two organizations until very recently, both Soren
and Mindan have assumed a rigid anti-assimilationist stance, emphasizing that ?????identify as
overseas Koreans above all else. Maybe the first generation of Korean
considered the naturalization to be taboo and betrayal of one´s Korean heritage
but the new generations have become so “Japanized” that they are no longer
interested in remote “homeland” politics.  

 Challenges in the Future; in lacking
Japanese citizenship ?????are
faced with numerous

challenges, such as receiving social welfare benefits,
obtaining employment, and encountering hate speech. The unemployment levels
among ?????is about double
that of the Japanese national average, some believe that the unemployment rate
is higher because ethnic Koreans switch jobs frequently, typically working in
the service industry. Other of the challenges that the ????? are
also not allowed to hold government positions that exercise public power or
decision-making on behalf of the public.

The government and nationalistic groups take on the
stance that individuals with the authority to influence the public and use
revenue collected from the public should be the citizens. However, a counterargument
is that perhaps citizenship should not the be-all end-all of defining who is or
is not Japanese, or even who is a good candidate for the position in question.
A lack of legal citizenship because of one’s ethnicity does not completely
justify preventing perhaps well-qualified individuals to take leadership positions,
or even jobs that may not have a connection or relation to one’s citizenship. Furthermore,
special permanent residents also pay taxes to the government that supports these
local governmental institutions. ?????
had their nationality arbitrarily stripped from them after the war, and it has
been a struggle to obtain Japanese citizenship without giving up their ethnic
diversity and identity. Most were born in Japan, have lived in the country for
their entire lives, pay taxes, speak Japanese, and understand Japanese culture.
For other side the ?????
are targets of hate speech from ultra-right wing, ultra-nationalistic Japanese
groups such as the Zaitokukai and the Action Conservative Movement. While this
type of hate speech affects ?????,
their encounters of such protests would typically be sporadic events.
Meanwhile, most ?????face subtle and
indirect micro aggression discrimination on a more frequent basis. Micro
aggressions are generalized and damaging insults based on stereotypes,
attitudes, or actions. (Young-min Cho 2016, 30)

than tried create or promote a campaign for better understanding about
minorities´ histories and rights among the public to grow tolerance and
acceptance, as many theorists argued, it is necessary the establishment of the
three principles basic that are minimum tolerance, mutual solidarity and human
equivalence, with this and one national law about minorities, will be enough to
step by step the Japanese society will be more open and tolerant.

Minimum Tolerance; that’s means that the main idea to
human rights should be, not the unification of the different segments of
population inside of one concept put inside of one law, if not the true goal it
is reach that the people can be live together but at the same time have the conscience
that the people maybe that live at his side could be different not only in his
aspect, if not in his religion, in his nationality, in his behavior, but at the
end is always necessary establish the framework of minimum tolerance, this
concept was create for Zygmunt Bauman Polish Sociologist to represent that many
time the spirit of laws or rules, it is not create one framework of tolerance
if not for the contrary is make that the concept of tolerance disappear of the
context, because is more easy if you have happy all the biggest segment of
population, that if you try that all segments of population it is not important
that if you are the biggest segment or the smallest segment, the minimum
tolerance should be guarantee to all persons, and if you guarantee this
tolerance so you can take the next step and establish the concept of mutual

Mutual solidarity; the second concept that any country
but more Japan should establish, it is the mutual solidarity, once that the
country created the framework of tolerance inside of that concept should exist
the solidarity, what is this again this concept is create for Bauman, and he
explain that the mutual solidarity is the expression of tolerance, how explain
this, so simple, if you have tolerance the solidarity will be the reaction when
that tolerance will be violated for other groups or segment in the society, the
solidarity not only with other citizens if not also the part of government and
social groups, because many times this type of social groups, also official
institutions of part of government exist, but they don’t make anything to
explore and consolidate the framework of tolerance and solidarity, to make that
the social gaps disappear and with that give pass to the third concept and the
last human equivalence.

Human equivalence; this third concept is the final
step, that Bauman developed, in his sociologist theory explain that this final
stage could be represented for the Human Rights, and of course that expression
in many countries, and in this case in Japan the human rights are recognized,
but his applications as in others countries, is with the goal of unify the social
differences, but this concept of human equivalence said that difference should
be highlight to create in consequence tolerance and solidarity.

How we can see in the first part of this essay try
about the ideas of other authors about the ?????,  but my true intentions is say that with the establishment of these three
concept, maybe many issues of ethinicity and race, it will be able to resolve
in the future.


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