The many cases. Abnormality can be defined

The purpose of this essay is to discuss abnormalityand the influences of heredity and environment on two psychological disorderswhich are Autism and Depression, Autism is a lifelong developmentaldisability that affects how people perceive with the world and interacts withothers or how person communicates and relates to other people, and how theyexperience the world around them. It can also be a complex disorder of braindevelopment. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, bydifficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication andrepetitive behaviour. But depression is a disorder that characterised by lowmood and a wide range of other possible symptoms which will vary from person toperson, this illness can develop quickly or gradually and be brought on by lifeevents or changes in body chemistry, it can strike anyone, and is manageable invary many cases.Abnormality can be defined as afeelings that start to take over some one’s life, when experiences things likeunexplained, changes in mood, lack of interest in socializing, lack of empathy,inability to tell the difference between reality and fantasy or a seeming lackof control.Abnormality can also defined asdeviation from the norms or a person that is unable to cope with the demand ofevery life or perform the behaviours necessary for day-to-day activity, or anexperience in life or development of behaviour patterns that are consideredharmful for the individual; this may be behaviours that we learned from theenvironment which is nurture.The methods used for the classificationof autism and depression are DSM V and ICD mental diagnostician is aninternational standard diagnostic classification for all generalepidemiological and many health management purposes and it consists of 10 maingroups including symptomatic, mental disorders.

DSM-IV The classificationsystem of the American psychiatric Association (APA), the diagnostic andstatistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), consists of five axes ofdisorders. The diagnostician suggested not to focus only on one clinicaldisorder but to consider other important aspects.   Autism diagnosing in a person with anintellectual disability is more difficult, as some of the criteria for autismcan be present in a person with an intellectual disability, mental delay maymask the autism an a diagnosis may come later or not at all.

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{In the 1950’s and1960’s there was speculation that parents may contribute to the condition,research suggest that injury or dysfunction of the central nervous system mayresult in autism, moreover if the individual display a number of thisbehaviours on the assessment, then it is likely that they will have some degreeof autistic spectrum disorder.Furthermore, the DSM-V-committee has recently published diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder,their believe is that by examine DSM has over looked a number of importantissues, including social imagination, the diagnosis in infancy and adulthood havepossibility that girls and abdomen with autism may continue to go unrecognisedor misdiagnosed under new manual. In addition, there is a conclude that anumber of changes need to be made in order that the DSM-V- criteria might beused reliably.   Depression: There are different type ofdepression symptoms that reliably occur together to form a type of mental disorders.This allows psychiatrists doctors and psychologists to easily indentify groupsof similar patients. A diagnosis can be made, and a suitable treatment can bedeveloped and administered to all those showing similar symptoms. The diagnostic and statisticalmanual of mental disorders (DSM) defines abnormality as a clinicallysignificant syndrome associated with distress, increase in the risk of pain ordeath and the loss of functioning, The DMS is manual with over 200 specificdiagnostic categories for mental disorder.

          However, one of the largest problemsof diagnosing in patients is whether or not the diagnosing is valid orreliable. The test –retest reliability is concerned with whether the samepatient will receive the same diagnosis if assessed more than once by the timethe literature review examining evidence relating to the reliability ofdiagnosis of depression, they found that  there are many symptoms of depression whichinclude low-mood, feelings of hopelessness, low self-esteem, lethargy and sleepproblems, initial diagnosis of depression will help you to assess whether youcould be depressed, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 are both operational diagnostic system,In conclusion there will always be issues of validity and reliability indiagnosis, certain groups of people will be more likely to receive a diagnosisto a disorder compared to others and psychiatrists will need to be careful whendiagnosing patients. Mental health disorders, thiscan be defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes hisor her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can workproductively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or hercommunity.

Mental health disorder can cover a broad range of disorders, but Iwill only discuss Autism and Depression, but the common characteristic is thatthey all affect the affected person’s personality, thought processes or socialinteractions. They can be difficult to clearly diagnose, unlike physicalillnesses, According to data from SAMHSA, 20 percent of people in Americasurfer from a form of mental disorder, and 5 percent surfer from a disordersevere enough to affect school, work or other aspect of life. Mental health disorder is stilla huge, prevalent problem to the uk’s wellbeing and recent budget cut, alongwith a lack of available resources, have only worsened the situation.Around 25% of people in the ukare experiencing some form of mental health disorder in any given year withdepression affecting a massive 20% of our population let judge with thisdiagram.                      It is normal for someone you know toexperiences erratic thought patterns like feel sad, angry, confused, upset andfrustrated, but when this feelings start to take over your life, this is aserious matter, or when you are experiences things like unexplained changes inmood, lack of interest in socializing, lack of empathy,inability to tell the difference between reality and fantasy or a seeming lackof control, With all of this experiences you need to seek for medical help.

Additionally, when you have one ormore of this disorder, It means that you have a Genetic predispositionwhich results to specific genetic variations that are often inherited from aparent. These genetic changes and contributing to the development of a disease,but it do not directly cause it. Some people with a predisposing geneticvariation will never get the disease while others will, even within the samefamily. In people with a genetic predisposition, the risk of disease can dependon multiple factors in addition to an identified genetic change. These include othergenetic factors (sometimes called modifiers) as well as lifestyle andenvironmental factors.

Moreover nature and nurture also have a greaterimpact on mental health disorder, because nature is the genetic or hormonebased on behaviours, while nurture is most commonly defined as environment andexperience that discovered genes for every behaviour. Nature is also a broadestsense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe and is generallytaken as the influence of external factors after conception e.g.

the product ofexposure, experience and learning on an individual, recently the nature hasgained more attention, it has been discovered that genes for virtually everybehaviour psychology and socio-biology are branches of science that attempt todemonstrate the evolutionary roots of human behaviour and the role of earlychildhood environment, development and cultural influences. The environmentalaspects of it can be the habits of parents, friends, or a partner, might alsobe significant factors contributing to the development of an addiction. Thereis an argument that says socio-biology and evolutionary psychology aredeterministic pseudoscience.      Mental health disorders can cause awide variety of emotional symptoms such as change in mood, erratic thinking,chronic anxiety, exaggerated sense of self-worth, Impulsive action. Mentalhealth cannot be cured, but it can be treated or manage effectively, somepeople with a mental health can get help to minimize the effects of the illnessand promote recovery, this can involve psychological therapy, medication andvarious supports in the community, as well as people with the mental illnesshelping themselves to help recover a balancedlife. Healthy eating, getting plenty of sleep, and regular physical activityare all important to good mental health. Learning skills which help deal withstress, feeling down, relationships or the symptoms of the illness, are alsoways in which someone with a mental illness can look after themselves. There are different factors contributing to the development of eachillness, it can sometimes be difficult to predict how, when, or to what degreesomeone is going to get belter.

Althougha person’s genetic makeup cannot be altered, some lifestyle environmentalmodifications (such as having more frequent disease screenings and maintaininga healthy weight) may be able to reduce disease risk in people with a geneticpredisposition.Culture is a group of people’s way of life,consisting of predictable patterns of values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviourswhich are passed down through generations, cultural differences can be crucialin determining how well a family accepts a medical diagnosis and thus theoutcome by taking culture into account when establishing a treatment plan for adevastating disability such as autism. Autism is a disorder present at birth ormay be diagnosed before age three in which behavioural, communication andsocial abilities are impaired. There is no cure for autism because of thelifelong effects on individuals and families, parents of autistic children sufferfrom an increase in stress, a poorer quality of marriage, depression, anxietyand increase in anger when compared to parents of typical children.

 It’s important to be awareof how cultural values, such as religion, can be influential in the diagnosis,treatment and welfare of families with an autistic child. Our job is to openour minds to what we can learn from other cultures in order to bettermeet the needs of our autistic children. Regardless of cultural group..However, it is possible that the parents face processing deficits that may becausally linked to their children in the form of prolonged early non parentalcare, this can be an additional risk factor for autism, to my understanding of epigeneticthe social environment can influences gene expression and social development,the true aetiology of autism may also incorporate, both nature and nurture – geneticallydetermined predispositions and the cumulative effects of exposure to adverse ora typical social environments.

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