The an experimental group for the purpose

Thecurrent healthcare policy proposals support the use of evidence-based practicesin improving patient outcomes. Evidence-based practice, according to Gerrishand Lacey (2010), has three general components namely the best researchevidence available, clinical specialists, and preferences from the patient. Theapproval of information derived from research is not absolute, andconsideration of healthcare personnel experience and assistance from moreexperienced medical practitioners is important for intervention decisionsduring care provision.

The goal for nursing research, as Blake (2016)indicates, is to establish evidence and apply it to achieve better standards ofcare and functions for both patients and their families. This critical reviewanalyses the work of Jorge et al. (2015).

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The paper evaluates the researchprocess used by the researchers, section by section, seeking to establishwhether proper procedures were followed and whether the work provides adequateand reliable information for use in nursing practice.CriticalAnalysisAbstractThearticle titled “ProgressiveResistance Exercise in Women with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A RandomizedControlled Trial” by Jorge et al. (2015) presents the findings of astudy on the impacts of an exercise program on women with osteoarthritis of theknee. The abstract provides information on what the reader can expect to findin the article, and explains the method used for research. The researchers usedrandom selection to place 31 subjects in a control group and 29 on anexperimental group for the purpose of result comparison. However, the abstractdoes not explain why the subjects were not equally divided into the two groups.The study results indicate a significant change in the subjects who were placedon Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) program. The results included painreduction, improvement of functionality and increased strength and life qualityfor patients.

IntroductionInthe introduction, the authors report that women are more prone to osteoarthritisthan men are, with 80% of those suffering from the condition experiencinglimited mobility and pain. The global population affected by the condition isapproximated at 20% (Jorge et al. 2015). According to the article, thecondition affects the quadriceps muscles of the knee, which makes it difficultfor the patients to perform normal life functions such as walking. Interventionthrough aerobic exercises to strengthen the muscles has been acknowledged asone of the ways to improve patients’ quality of life. The authors define PRE asa muscle strengthening exercise where weights are used to improve the patients’hip and knee muscle strength.

However, it is reported that proper measures forprogress in exercise intensity are lacking. This prompts the need for researchto identify the response of women with osteoarthritis of the knee after theintroduction of PRE program. The results can then be used as a base forevidence in the clinical practice.

The introduction provides sufficientinformation about the program, enabling the reader to comprehend the topicunder discussion, the statistical data available, and the extent to whichresearch has been done, as recommended by Burns and Grove (2010). Theintroduction also provides readers with a thesis statement as required by theresearch procedures according to Winsett and Cashion (2007).MethodsThesubjects’ selection criterion is clear and matches the requirements of nursingresearch. First, permission is obtained from the Human Research EthicsCommittee. Secondly, the samples are determined, and they include women betweenthe ages of 40 and 70 years with severe knee osteoarthritis whose pain at restranges between 3 cm and 8 on the Visual Analog Scale. However, the researchersfail to explain why they chose women alone, yet the condition affects both menand women.

While it is indicated in the introduction that the condition mostlyaffects women, it would be reasonable to include men in the research andobserve their reaction to the program. The researchers also fail to explain whythe preferred the measure of pain is between 3 cm and 8 cm, as opposed to anyother values between 0 and 10 cm on the scale. The elimination of subjects wasdependent on the availability of the subject, recent involvement of drugs andtreatment that could affect the measure of pain, and history of recentinjuries. This gave the researchers an appropriate sample to determine thereliability of results. Other information collected included age, race, gender,body mass index, education level, among other relevant information aimed athelping the researchers to determine the most affected demographic group. Asreported by Webb (2009), it is necessary to gather adequate and relevant dataabout a study sample to increase the validity and reliability of findings.Other measures considered in the study included secondary outcomes ranging fromquality of life, functionality, walking distance, improvement of the conditionafter treatment, patient strength, and side effects. The researchers provideinformation on the processes involved in the research to improve the readers’understanding of the scope of the research.

All the subjects for bothexperimental group and control group received equal treatment in terms ofmedication for pain control during the experiment period. Statistical analysiswas calculated using mean and standard deviation on different groups thatparticipated. Usually, the purpose of the methodology section is to enlightenthe reader on the nature of data analysed in the study, as well as how thestudy was conducted (Webb 2009). Inthe study, the researchers used the qualitative method of research, and datawas collected and analysed within the guidelines of the Brazilian version ofthe Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) (Jorge et al.

2015). The use of narrative inquiry, as Hesse-Biber and Leavy (2011)illustrates, is evident in the research. This is because data collection wasbased on onetime assessment, where subjects were considered depending on thelast results on their assessment records. The researchers also used thecase-control design for the study, whereby subjects were required to performpre-determined exercises at given intervals and using specific weights in orderto meet one of the study objectives, which was to determine the intensity ofexercise required to make the anticipated impact on patients which would act asthe evidence base for practitioners. The sampling method is also wellelaborated and provides the reader with all necessary information in order forthem to understand what is happening and why. ResultsTheresults section is aimed at providing information on the findings of theresearch.

According to Grove, Burns, and Gray (2014), the section explains therelationship between different variables and the actual results of theresearch. In this case, the researchers have used different categories ofsubjects for the research and identified challenges faced during the study. Theresults of each category are provided and compared to report the differencebetween those categories as Kumar (2010) suggests.

This makes it easier for thereaders to understand the findings. However, according to Junyong and Lee(2017) and the World Health Organization (2014), there are other convenientmethods of presenting data. These methods include the use of graphs and charts,in addition to the mean and median data that are easier to understand than thetables used by the researchers in the article.Nevertheless,the reader is well informed on the progress of the research and anyinterventions made to address shortcomings, as suggested by Neil, Hanton,Fleming, and Wilson (2013). For instance, personal and health-relatedchallenges led to the dropping off of six subjects, some of whom returned for revaluation.The rest of the subjects were treated within the constraints of the group theywere placed in, and evaluation concentrated more on the most affected knee.

Theresults indicated that the condition of subjects in the experimental groupimproved in terms of mobility, pain reduction, muscle strength and quality oflife after use of different weights in exercise. However, the response of thosein the control group was worse in terms of pain, muscles strength and qualityof life.DiscussionThediscussion section starts by summarizing and identifying gaps in previousstudies, which, according to Bavdekar (2015), should be the first step in thediscussion section. The article also provides adequate information about theknown literature results as recommended by Motsitsi (2014). According to thearticle, involvement of hip exercise during the PRE program significantlyimproved results in regard to pain levels as measured by the health scale,motion, as measured by the distance walked, physical functions, and socialaspects including mental health.

Use of professionally recommended exerciseprocedures in the research is acknowledged by Jorge et al. (2015). The researchidentified that noteworthy improvement in the level of pain and functionalityfor subjects in the experimental group was achieved on the sixth week, which iscomparable to the available literature that indicates improvement in the eighthweek after intervention.Thestudy reports the adherence level to be 96% for subjects in the experimentalgroup and 89% for those in the control group, as opposed to other studies thatprovided varying results ranging between 78% and 92%. In addition, Jorge et al.(2015) determined the amount of medication used by the subjects under theexperimental group to be lower. Such medication was meant to improve thecondition by reducing pain and inflammation. The researchers also expounded onthe interventions made to the subjects who were affected by the experiment andthe impact of the intervention.

For example, the article indicates that somesubjects complained of high levels of pain during the initial stages, and theywere taken to physicians and given a one-week break. The pain complaints endedand the subjects went through the program comfortably.Theresearchers have identified some limitations in the study. As reported byGerrish and Lathlean (2015), limitations provide the reader with knowledge onareas that would have affected the findings of the study and areas that requirefurther research. In this case, some of the limitations identified include lackof inclusion of medication used before the intervention program, the originaldiagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee, consideration of women alone in thestudy and lack of follow-up to identify long-term effects of the PRE program.The authors conclude that implementation of PRE program improves the conditionfor women patients with osteoarthritis of the knee where hip joint exercisesand progressive weight adjustment is done. This improves the patients’functionalities, reduces pain and improves their quality of life.

The authorsrecommended for further research to determine whether men would exhibit thesame results.ConclusionThisreview has analysed the assigned article to determine whether proper procedureswere followed in the collection, analysis, and reporting of data in theselected study. The abstract and introduction parts are well written, and theyprovide adequate information as required by the research standards.Specifically, the abstract provides the objectives of the study, the methodsused, results, and a summative conclusion sufficient for a reader to decidewhether to read the other details.

The introduction also provides backgroundinformation on the known information about the condition, the shortcomings ofprevious research, and an accurate thesis statement. The methods part is alsohighly informative and elaborate, and the discussion section provides preciseinformation regarding the limitations and successes of the program. Forinstance, the choice of women as the ideal candidates for the study was notdiscussed, yet the condition affects both men and women. Generally, the articlemeets the objectives anticipated and provides adequate, reliable and accurateinformation that can be used in evidence-based clinical practice.


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