The Civil War brought about the use of the telegraph that improved communication, enhanced the finance system through a national currency which paved the way for industrialization, and created the first Transcontinental Railroad through the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. As a result of these new changes that caused greater efficiency and productivity, America was well on its way to becoming a successful industrialized nation. By the late 19th century the technological advancements fostered major changes within the U.S. involving the rapidly growing railroad industry, the shift of an agrarian nation to an industrial nation, and the working field. The increase in the production of railroads was a result of federal land grants and bonds issued by the government to the railroad companies. Railroads were the first modern corporations that extended throughout the country and had many employees which meant that business management strategies, like middle managers, were created. The railroad industry promoted western settlement in the Great Plains and the towns through which trains passed by were able to flourish and grow whereas towns that did not have trains passing by became ghost towns. Railroads also successfully unified the internal market by creating a national market for goods. They allowed for the mass distribution of raw materials and manufactured goods from coast to coast. The use of railroads encouraged mass production and mass consumption of goods. Because of this, different parts of the country specialized in manufacturing certain products. Additionally, the railroad industry changed the lives of Americans by dividing the country into 4 different time zones in order to have greater efficiency. Apart from the railroad industry, other industries such as oil, steel, and coal, were able to flourish during this time period as well. Captains of industries, who were often viewed as Robber Barons, developed new business strategies that enabled their company to work efficiently and successfully. John D. Rockefeller, for example, rose to success by using horizontal integration where he merged competing oil industries into one large corporation so that little to no competition would be left. Andrew Carnegie was another businessman who used vertical integration where all aspects of manufacturing are controlled from raw materials, to production, to distribution. This business practice along with the creation of the Bessemer Process that sped up and perfected steel production is what allowed Carnegie to rise to the top. This growth of industry was the motivating factor that led people to move into the cities in search of potential job opportunities and as a result, industrialized societies began to thrive. The success behind the growing businesses was the result of the hard labor from the workers who faced many hardships. Workers had to work long hours in poor or dangerous working conditions often for low wages and no injury compensations. These unjust labor conditions sparked the creation of labor unions, the very first one being the National Labor Union, followed by the Knights of Labor and later the American Federation of Labor. Although unions were mostly ineffective due to strikes being shut down by the government and corporations replacing workers with scabs who were mostly immigrants, the unions made genuine attempts in improving the workers’ pay, hours, and safety. The inventions during this time also called for the creation of new jobs. The telephone along with typewriters allowed for the opening of secretary positions that were mostly taken up by women. Now that women had more job opportunities than ever before, society’s view on women’s role shifted from that of staying at home to one where women acquired a job. Ultimately, technology had a huge impact in the U.S industry during the late 19th century. The rise of railroad production allowed for a unified national market that encouraged mass production and created different time zones that affected the daily lives of Americans for better efficiency. The railroad industry also helped steel and oil industries to flourish by transporting finished goods. Because of this boom in steel and oil industries, society shifted its focus from agriculture to industrialization and manufacturing. These corporations highly demanded workers to maintain the businesses functioning well yet they treated the workers poorly which led to the creation of labor unions to bring justice for the workers. Women were also given more economic opportunities due to inventions like the telephone and were able to gain a sense of independence through their new jobs.